BackgroundThe first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wave and lockdown adversely affected the lives of people in diverse ways. AimsThis study used a person-centered approach to identify patterns of engagement in the 12 psychological flexibility (PF) and inflexibility (PI) processes to manage the first COVID-19 wave and lockdown hardships. Materials & MethodsA total of 1035 Italian adults completed an online survey. ResultsLatent profile analyses conducted on the 12 PI/PF processes measured by the Multidimensional Psychological Flexibility Inventory identified five profiles; three reflected gradations of high to low PF with corresponding inverse levels of PI, while two represented more complex relationships between PI and PF. After controlling for relevant socio-demographic and COVID-19/lockdown factors, the five profiles differed in mental health (depression, anxiety, and COVID-19 distress). Essentially a gradient of progressive decreases in all PI processes (except experiential avoidance) corresponded with increments in mental health across all profiles. Two profiles, which evidenced the highest levels of mental health (highly flexible and moderately flexible profiles), also had the greatest proportion of the sample 56.42% (n = 584), and the highest levels of PF and experiential avoidance. DiscussionFindings from this and similar studies suggest intersecting complex relationships among the PI/PF processes that are likely to shift in response to changing contexts. We suggest this network of relationships is better represented by a three-dimensional PF/PI hexaflex than a simplistic two-dimensional depiction of the model. ConclusionDistinguishing different PF/PI profiles identified groups most at risk for the adverse mental health impacts of the pandemic and exposed variations in the mental health protective and risk roles of PF and PI processes, respectively, that can inform ACT-based mental health promotion interventions.

Identification of psychological flexibility and inflexibility profiles during the COVID-19 pandemic

Landi, Giulia
;
Cattivelli, Roberto;Grandi, Silvana;Tossani, Eliana
2023

Abstract

BackgroundThe first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wave and lockdown adversely affected the lives of people in diverse ways. AimsThis study used a person-centered approach to identify patterns of engagement in the 12 psychological flexibility (PF) and inflexibility (PI) processes to manage the first COVID-19 wave and lockdown hardships. Materials & MethodsA total of 1035 Italian adults completed an online survey. ResultsLatent profile analyses conducted on the 12 PI/PF processes measured by the Multidimensional Psychological Flexibility Inventory identified five profiles; three reflected gradations of high to low PF with corresponding inverse levels of PI, while two represented more complex relationships between PI and PF. After controlling for relevant socio-demographic and COVID-19/lockdown factors, the five profiles differed in mental health (depression, anxiety, and COVID-19 distress). Essentially a gradient of progressive decreases in all PI processes (except experiential avoidance) corresponded with increments in mental health across all profiles. Two profiles, which evidenced the highest levels of mental health (highly flexible and moderately flexible profiles), also had the greatest proportion of the sample 56.42% (n = 584), and the highest levels of PF and experiential avoidance. DiscussionFindings from this and similar studies suggest intersecting complex relationships among the PI/PF processes that are likely to shift in response to changing contexts. We suggest this network of relationships is better represented by a three-dimensional PF/PI hexaflex than a simplistic two-dimensional depiction of the model. ConclusionDistinguishing different PF/PI profiles identified groups most at risk for the adverse mental health impacts of the pandemic and exposed variations in the mental health protective and risk roles of PF and PI processes, respectively, that can inform ACT-based mental health promotion interventions.
2023
Pakenham, Kenneth I; Landi, Giulia; Cattivelli, Roberto; Grandi, Silvana; Tossani, Eliana
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/936034
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