Objectives: In this systematic review we aimed at assessing how artificial intelligence (AI), including machine learning (ML) techniques have been deployed to predict, diagnose, and treat chronic kidney disease (CKD). We systematically reviewed the available evidence on these innovative techniques to improve CKD diagnosis and patient management. Methods: We included English language studies retrieved from PubMed. The review is therefore to be classified as a “rapid review”, since it includes one database only, and has language restrictions; the novelty and importance of the issue make missing relevant papers unlikely. We extracted 16 variables, including: main aim, studied population, data source, sample size, problem type (regression, classification), predictors used, and performance metrics. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) approach; all main steps were done in duplicate. The review was registered on PROSPERO. Results: From a total of 648 studies initially retrieved, 68 articles met the inclusion criteria. Models, as reported by authors, performed well, but the reported metrics were not homogeneous across articles and therefore direct comparison was not feasible. The most common aim was prediction of prognosis, followed by diagnosis of CKD. Algorithm generalizability, and testing on diverse populations was rarely taken into account. Furthermore, the clinical evaluation and validation of the models/algorithms was perused; only a fraction of the included studies, 6 out of 68, were performed in a clinical context. Conclusions: Machine learning is a promising tool for the prediction of risk, diagnosis, and therapy management for CKD patients. Nonetheless, future work is needed to address the interpretability, generalizability, and fairness of the models to ensure the safe application of such technologies in routine clinical practice. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Predict, diagnose, and treat chronic kidney disease with machine learning: a systematic literature review / Sanmarchi F.; Fanconi C.; Golinelli D.; Gori D.; Hernandez-Boussard T.; Capodici A.. - In: JN. JOURNAL OF NEPHROLOGY. - ISSN 1121-8428. - ELETTRONICO. - 36:4(2023), pp. 1101-1117. [10.1007/s40620-023-01573-4]

Predict, diagnose, and treat chronic kidney disease with machine learning: a systematic literature review

Sanmarchi F.;Golinelli D.;Gori D.;Capodici A.
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Objectives: In this systematic review we aimed at assessing how artificial intelligence (AI), including machine learning (ML) techniques have been deployed to predict, diagnose, and treat chronic kidney disease (CKD). We systematically reviewed the available evidence on these innovative techniques to improve CKD diagnosis and patient management. Methods: We included English language studies retrieved from PubMed. The review is therefore to be classified as a “rapid review”, since it includes one database only, and has language restrictions; the novelty and importance of the issue make missing relevant papers unlikely. We extracted 16 variables, including: main aim, studied population, data source, sample size, problem type (regression, classification), predictors used, and performance metrics. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) approach; all main steps were done in duplicate. The review was registered on PROSPERO. Results: From a total of 648 studies initially retrieved, 68 articles met the inclusion criteria. Models, as reported by authors, performed well, but the reported metrics were not homogeneous across articles and therefore direct comparison was not feasible. The most common aim was prediction of prognosis, followed by diagnosis of CKD. Algorithm generalizability, and testing on diverse populations was rarely taken into account. Furthermore, the clinical evaluation and validation of the models/algorithms was perused; only a fraction of the included studies, 6 out of 68, were performed in a clinical context. Conclusions: Machine learning is a promising tool for the prediction of risk, diagnosis, and therapy management for CKD patients. Nonetheless, future work is needed to address the interpretability, generalizability, and fairness of the models to ensure the safe application of such technologies in routine clinical practice. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
2023
Predict, diagnose, and treat chronic kidney disease with machine learning: a systematic literature review / Sanmarchi F.; Fanconi C.; Golinelli D.; Gori D.; Hernandez-Boussard T.; Capodici A.. - In: JN. JOURNAL OF NEPHROLOGY. - ISSN 1121-8428. - ELETTRONICO. - 36:4(2023), pp. 1101-1117. [10.1007/s40620-023-01573-4]
Sanmarchi F.; Fanconi C.; Golinelli D.; Gori D.; Hernandez-Boussard T.; Capodici A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/928034
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