Recently, Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NaDES) have emerged as potential solvents for boosting drug bioavailability. In this work, the mechanism of solubility enhancement of some APIs belonging to BCS class II (tolbutamide, nimesulide, domperidone and cinnarizine) in these eutectic bio-solvents was investigated in order to get deeper insights into the molecular interactions between the NaDES components and the selected drugs. Different NaDES formulations based on choline chloride, proline, solid organic acids (citric, tartaric and malic acid), sugars (glucose and xylitol) and water were prepared by mild heating (70 °C). Characterization of unloaded NaDES (pH, Karl Fisher titration, viscosity and FTIR analysis) indicated that the type of Hydrogen Bond Acceptor (HBA) and Hydrogen Bond Donor (HBD), their molar ratio as well as water amount strongly affect the extent of H-bonding interactions. Hard gelatin capsules filled with NaDES maintained their integrity until 6 months, proving that all water molecules participate in H-bond network. APIs' solubility enhancement was significant in all NaDES with respect to buffer solutions (pH 1.2 and 6.8). Analysing NaDES having Choline as HBA, it was found that the solubility of smaller molecules increased using larger HBD, while higher molecular weight APIs can be better inserted into the network formed by smaller HBD. NOE experiments demonstrated the formation of a robust supramolecular structure among the protons of choline, those of organic acid and water. In addition, 1D ROESY spectra revealed for the first time the crucial role of choline (methyl groups) in establishing hydrophobic interactions with the relative aliphatic or aromatic portion of the drugs. These data suggest the complex structure of the API-NaDES supramolecular assembly and underline that drug solubility is dependent on a balance network of H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions as well. Understanding the type of interactions between the API and NaDES is essential for their use as effective solubilisation aid.

NaDES as a green technological approach for the solubility improvement of BCS class II APIs: An insight into the molecular interactions / Albertini B.; Bertoni S.; Sangiorgi S.; Nucci G.; Passerini N.; Mezzina E.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS. - ISSN 0378-5173. - ELETTRONICO. - 634:(2023), pp. 122696.1-122696.12. [10.1016/j.ijpharm.2023.122696]

NaDES as a green technological approach for the solubility improvement of BCS class II APIs: An insight into the molecular interactions

Albertini B.
;
Bertoni S.;Sangiorgi S.;Passerini N.;Mezzina E.
2023

Abstract

Recently, Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NaDES) have emerged as potential solvents for boosting drug bioavailability. In this work, the mechanism of solubility enhancement of some APIs belonging to BCS class II (tolbutamide, nimesulide, domperidone and cinnarizine) in these eutectic bio-solvents was investigated in order to get deeper insights into the molecular interactions between the NaDES components and the selected drugs. Different NaDES formulations based on choline chloride, proline, solid organic acids (citric, tartaric and malic acid), sugars (glucose and xylitol) and water were prepared by mild heating (70 °C). Characterization of unloaded NaDES (pH, Karl Fisher titration, viscosity and FTIR analysis) indicated that the type of Hydrogen Bond Acceptor (HBA) and Hydrogen Bond Donor (HBD), their molar ratio as well as water amount strongly affect the extent of H-bonding interactions. Hard gelatin capsules filled with NaDES maintained their integrity until 6 months, proving that all water molecules participate in H-bond network. APIs' solubility enhancement was significant in all NaDES with respect to buffer solutions (pH 1.2 and 6.8). Analysing NaDES having Choline as HBA, it was found that the solubility of smaller molecules increased using larger HBD, while higher molecular weight APIs can be better inserted into the network formed by smaller HBD. NOE experiments demonstrated the formation of a robust supramolecular structure among the protons of choline, those of organic acid and water. In addition, 1D ROESY spectra revealed for the first time the crucial role of choline (methyl groups) in establishing hydrophobic interactions with the relative aliphatic or aromatic portion of the drugs. These data suggest the complex structure of the API-NaDES supramolecular assembly and underline that drug solubility is dependent on a balance network of H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions as well. Understanding the type of interactions between the API and NaDES is essential for their use as effective solubilisation aid.
2023
NaDES as a green technological approach for the solubility improvement of BCS class II APIs: An insight into the molecular interactions / Albertini B.; Bertoni S.; Sangiorgi S.; Nucci G.; Passerini N.; Mezzina E.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS. - ISSN 0378-5173. - ELETTRONICO. - 634:(2023), pp. 122696.1-122696.12. [10.1016/j.ijpharm.2023.122696]
Albertini B.; Bertoni S.; Sangiorgi S.; Nucci G.; Passerini N.; Mezzina E.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/921138
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