The Order Phasmatodea (stick and leaf insects) includes many well-known species of cryptic phytophagous insects. In this work, we sequenced the almost complete mitochondrial genomes of two stick insect species of the genus Bacillus. Phasmatodea pertain to the Polyneoptera, and represent one of the major clades of heterometabolous insects. Orthopteroid insect lineages arose through rapid evolutionary radiation events, which likely blurred the phylogenetic reconstructions obtained so far; we therefore performed a phylogenetic analysis to resolve and date all major splits of orthopteroid phylogeny, including the relationships between Phasmatodea and other polyneopterans. We explored several molecular models, with special reference to data partitioning, to correctly detect any phylogenetic signal lying in rough data. Phylogenetic Informativeness analysis showed that the maximum resolving power on the orthopteroid mtDNA dataset is expected for the Upper Cretaceous, about 80 million years ago (Mya), but at least 70% of the maximum informativeness is also expected for the 150–200 Mya timespan, which makes mtDNA a suitable marker to study orthopteroid splits. A complete chronological calibration has also been computed following a Penalized Likelihood method. In summary, our analysis confirmed the monophyly of Phasmatodea, Dictyoptera and Orthoptera, and retrieved Mantophasmatodea as sister group of Phasmatodea. The origin of orthopteroid insects was also estimated to be in the Middle Triassic, while the order Phasmatodea seems to appear in the Upper Jurassic. The obtained results evidenced that mtDNA is a suitable marker to unravel the ancient splits leading to the orthopteroid orders, given a proper methodological approach

The mitochondrial genome of Bacillus stick insects (Phasmatodea) and the phylogeny of the orthopteroid insects.

PLAZZI, FEDERICO;RICCI, ANDREA;PASSAMONTI, MARCO
2011

Abstract

The Order Phasmatodea (stick and leaf insects) includes many well-known species of cryptic phytophagous insects. In this work, we sequenced the almost complete mitochondrial genomes of two stick insect species of the genus Bacillus. Phasmatodea pertain to the Polyneoptera, and represent one of the major clades of heterometabolous insects. Orthopteroid insect lineages arose through rapid evolutionary radiation events, which likely blurred the phylogenetic reconstructions obtained so far; we therefore performed a phylogenetic analysis to resolve and date all major splits of orthopteroid phylogeny, including the relationships between Phasmatodea and other polyneopterans. We explored several molecular models, with special reference to data partitioning, to correctly detect any phylogenetic signal lying in rough data. Phylogenetic Informativeness analysis showed that the maximum resolving power on the orthopteroid mtDNA dataset is expected for the Upper Cretaceous, about 80 million years ago (Mya), but at least 70% of the maximum informativeness is also expected for the 150–200 Mya timespan, which makes mtDNA a suitable marker to study orthopteroid splits. A complete chronological calibration has also been computed following a Penalized Likelihood method. In summary, our analysis confirmed the monophyly of Phasmatodea, Dictyoptera and Orthoptera, and retrieved Mantophasmatodea as sister group of Phasmatodea. The origin of orthopteroid insects was also estimated to be in the Middle Triassic, while the order Phasmatodea seems to appear in the Upper Jurassic. The obtained results evidenced that mtDNA is a suitable marker to unravel the ancient splits leading to the orthopteroid orders, given a proper methodological approach
MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND EVOLUTION
Plazzi F.; Ricci A.; Passamonti M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/91842
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