Background: Whether the etiology of underlying liver disease represents a prognostic factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with lenvatinib is still a matter of debate. This study investigates whether the viral etiology of HCC plays a prognostic role in overall survival (OS). Methods: Data derived from a multicenter series of 313 HCC patients treated with lenvatinib between 2019 and 2022 were analyzed. Actuarial survival estimates were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. We performed an event-based counterfactual mediation analysis to estimate direct (chronic inflammation and immunosuppression), indirect (tobacco smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug abuse with injections), and the total effect of viral etiology on OS. Results were expressed as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI. Results: Median OS was 21 months (95% CI: 20-23) in the group with other etiologies and 15 months (14-16) in the group with viral etiology (p < 0.0001). The total effect of viral etiology was associated with OS (HR 2.76, 1.32-5.21), and it was mainly explained by the pure direct effect of viral etiology (HR 2.74, 1.15-4.45). By contrast, its total indirect effect was not associated with poorer survival (HR 1.05, 0.82-2.13). These results were confirmed when considering tobacco, alcohol consumption, or injection drug abuse as potential mediators. Median progression-free survival was 9 months (8-10) in patients with other etiologies and 6 months (5-7) in patients with viral etiology (p < 0.0001). No difference in terms of adverse event rate was observed between the two groups. Conclusions: Patients affected by HCC with nonviral etiology treated with lenvatinib exhibit longer survival than those with viral etiology. This finding may have relevance in the treatment decision-making process.

Role of Etiology in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Lenvatinib: A Counterfactual Event-Based Mediation Analysis / Sacco, Rodolfo; Ramai, Daryl; Tortora, Raffaella; di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe; Burlone, Michela Emma; Pirisi, Mario; Federico, Piera; Daniele, Bruno; Silletta, Marianna; Gallo, Paolo; Cocuzza, Caterina; Russello, Maurizio; Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Rancatore, Gabriele; Cesario, Silvia; Masi, Gianluca; Marzi, Luca; Mega, Andrea; Granito, Alessandro; Pieri, Giulia; Giannini, Edoardo G; Paolillo, Rosa; Gadaleta-Caldarola, Gennaro; Dadduzio, Vincenzo; Giordano, Guido; Giacomelli, Luca; Papa, Simonetta; Renzulli, Matteo; Maida, Marcello; Ghidini, Michele; Borzio, Mauro; Facciorusso, Antonio. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - STAMPA. - 15:2(2023), pp. 381.1-381.12. [10.3390/cancers15020381]

Role of Etiology in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Lenvatinib: A Counterfactual Event-Based Mediation Analysis

Granito, Alessandro
Conceptualization
;
Renzulli, Matteo
Conceptualization
;
2023

Abstract

Background: Whether the etiology of underlying liver disease represents a prognostic factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with lenvatinib is still a matter of debate. This study investigates whether the viral etiology of HCC plays a prognostic role in overall survival (OS). Methods: Data derived from a multicenter series of 313 HCC patients treated with lenvatinib between 2019 and 2022 were analyzed. Actuarial survival estimates were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. We performed an event-based counterfactual mediation analysis to estimate direct (chronic inflammation and immunosuppression), indirect (tobacco smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug abuse with injections), and the total effect of viral etiology on OS. Results were expressed as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI. Results: Median OS was 21 months (95% CI: 20-23) in the group with other etiologies and 15 months (14-16) in the group with viral etiology (p < 0.0001). The total effect of viral etiology was associated with OS (HR 2.76, 1.32-5.21), and it was mainly explained by the pure direct effect of viral etiology (HR 2.74, 1.15-4.45). By contrast, its total indirect effect was not associated with poorer survival (HR 1.05, 0.82-2.13). These results were confirmed when considering tobacco, alcohol consumption, or injection drug abuse as potential mediators. Median progression-free survival was 9 months (8-10) in patients with other etiologies and 6 months (5-7) in patients with viral etiology (p < 0.0001). No difference in terms of adverse event rate was observed between the two groups. Conclusions: Patients affected by HCC with nonviral etiology treated with lenvatinib exhibit longer survival than those with viral etiology. This finding may have relevance in the treatment decision-making process.
2023
Role of Etiology in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Lenvatinib: A Counterfactual Event-Based Mediation Analysis / Sacco, Rodolfo; Ramai, Daryl; Tortora, Raffaella; di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe; Burlone, Michela Emma; Pirisi, Mario; Federico, Piera; Daniele, Bruno; Silletta, Marianna; Gallo, Paolo; Cocuzza, Caterina; Russello, Maurizio; Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Rancatore, Gabriele; Cesario, Silvia; Masi, Gianluca; Marzi, Luca; Mega, Andrea; Granito, Alessandro; Pieri, Giulia; Giannini, Edoardo G; Paolillo, Rosa; Gadaleta-Caldarola, Gennaro; Dadduzio, Vincenzo; Giordano, Guido; Giacomelli, Luca; Papa, Simonetta; Renzulli, Matteo; Maida, Marcello; Ghidini, Michele; Borzio, Mauro; Facciorusso, Antonio. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - STAMPA. - 15:2(2023), pp. 381.1-381.12. [10.3390/cancers15020381]
Sacco, Rodolfo; Ramai, Daryl; Tortora, Raffaella; di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe; Burlone, Michela Emma; Pirisi, Mario; Federico, Piera; Daniele, Bruno; Silletta, Marianna; Gallo, Paolo; Cocuzza, Caterina; Russello, Maurizio; Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Rancatore, Gabriele; Cesario, Silvia; Masi, Gianluca; Marzi, Luca; Mega, Andrea; Granito, Alessandro; Pieri, Giulia; Giannini, Edoardo G; Paolillo, Rosa; Gadaleta-Caldarola, Gennaro; Dadduzio, Vincenzo; Giordano, Guido; Giacomelli, Luca; Papa, Simonetta; Renzulli, Matteo; Maida, Marcello; Ghidini, Michele; Borzio, Mauro; Facciorusso, Antonio
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