Objective: Brain death (BD) during pregnancy might justify in select cases maternal somatic support to obtain fetal viability and maximize perinatal outcome. This study is a systematic review of the literature on cases of brain death in pregnancy with attempt to prolong pregnancy to assess perinatal outcomes. Data sources: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, PubMed (including Cochrane database), and CINHAIL from inception to April 2020. Study eligibility criteria: Relevant articles describing any case report of maternal brain death were identified from the aforementioned databases without any time, language, or study limitations. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they described at least 1 case of maternal brain death. Methods: Only cases of brain death in pregnancy with maternal somatic support aimed at maximizing perinatal outcome were included. Maternal management strategy, diagnosis, clinical course, fetal monitoring, delivery, and fetal and neonatal outcome data were collected. Mean, range, standard deviation, and percentage calculations were used as applicable. Results: After exclusion, 35 cases of brain death in pregnancy were analyzed. The mean gestational age at diagnosis of brain death was at 20.2±5.3 weeks, and most cases (68%) were associated with maternal intracranial hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and hematoma. The most common maternal complications during the study were infections (69%) (eg, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis), circulatory instability (63%), diabetes insipidus (56%), thermal variability (41%), and panhypopituitarism (34%). The most common indications for delivery were maternal cardiocirculatory instability (38%) and nonreassuring fetal testing (35%). The mean gestational age at delivery was 27.2±4.7 weeks and differed depending on the gestational age at diagnosis of brain death. Most deliveries (89%) were via cesarean delivery. There were 8 cases (23%) of intrauterine fetal demise in the second trimester of pregnancy (14-25 weeks), and 27 neonates (77%) were born alive. Of the 35 cases of brain in pregnancy, 8 neonates (23%) were described as "healthy" at birth, 15 neonates (43%) had normal longer-term follow-up (>1 month to 8 years; mean, 20.3 months), 2 neonates (6%) had neurologic sequelae (born at 23 and 24 weeks of gestation), and 2 neonates (6%) died (born at 25 and 27 weeks of gestation). Mean birth weight was 1,229 grams, and small for gestational age was present in 17% of neonates. The rate of live birth differed by gestational age at diagnosis of brain death: 50% at <14 weeks, 54.5% at 14 to 19 6/7 weeks, 91.7% at 20 to 23 6/7 weeks, 100% at 24 to 27 6/7 weeks, and 100% at 28 to 31 6/7 weeks. Conclusion: In 35 cases of brain death in pregnancy at a mean gestation age of 20 weeks, maternal somatic support aimed at maximizing perinatal outcome lasted for about 7 weeks, with 77% of neonates being born alive and 85% of these infants having a normal outcome at 20 months of life. The data of this study will be helpful in counseling families and practitioners faced with such rare and complex cases.

Brain death in pregnancy: a systematic review focusing on perinatal outcomes / Dodaro, Maria Gaia; Seidenari, Anna; Marino, Ignazio R; Berghella, Vincenzo; Bellussi, Federica. - In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. - ISSN 1097-6868. - ELETTRONICO. - 224:5(2021), pp. 445-469. [10.1016/j.ajog.2021.01.033]

Brain death in pregnancy: a systematic review focusing on perinatal outcomes

Seidenari, Anna;
2021

Abstract

Objective: Brain death (BD) during pregnancy might justify in select cases maternal somatic support to obtain fetal viability and maximize perinatal outcome. This study is a systematic review of the literature on cases of brain death in pregnancy with attempt to prolong pregnancy to assess perinatal outcomes. Data sources: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, PubMed (including Cochrane database), and CINHAIL from inception to April 2020. Study eligibility criteria: Relevant articles describing any case report of maternal brain death were identified from the aforementioned databases without any time, language, or study limitations. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they described at least 1 case of maternal brain death. Methods: Only cases of brain death in pregnancy with maternal somatic support aimed at maximizing perinatal outcome were included. Maternal management strategy, diagnosis, clinical course, fetal monitoring, delivery, and fetal and neonatal outcome data were collected. Mean, range, standard deviation, and percentage calculations were used as applicable. Results: After exclusion, 35 cases of brain death in pregnancy were analyzed. The mean gestational age at diagnosis of brain death was at 20.2±5.3 weeks, and most cases (68%) were associated with maternal intracranial hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and hematoma. The most common maternal complications during the study were infections (69%) (eg, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis), circulatory instability (63%), diabetes insipidus (56%), thermal variability (41%), and panhypopituitarism (34%). The most common indications for delivery were maternal cardiocirculatory instability (38%) and nonreassuring fetal testing (35%). The mean gestational age at delivery was 27.2±4.7 weeks and differed depending on the gestational age at diagnosis of brain death. Most deliveries (89%) were via cesarean delivery. There were 8 cases (23%) of intrauterine fetal demise in the second trimester of pregnancy (14-25 weeks), and 27 neonates (77%) were born alive. Of the 35 cases of brain in pregnancy, 8 neonates (23%) were described as "healthy" at birth, 15 neonates (43%) had normal longer-term follow-up (>1 month to 8 years; mean, 20.3 months), 2 neonates (6%) had neurologic sequelae (born at 23 and 24 weeks of gestation), and 2 neonates (6%) died (born at 25 and 27 weeks of gestation). Mean birth weight was 1,229 grams, and small for gestational age was present in 17% of neonates. The rate of live birth differed by gestational age at diagnosis of brain death: 50% at <14 weeks, 54.5% at 14 to 19 6/7 weeks, 91.7% at 20 to 23 6/7 weeks, 100% at 24 to 27 6/7 weeks, and 100% at 28 to 31 6/7 weeks. Conclusion: In 35 cases of brain death in pregnancy at a mean gestation age of 20 weeks, maternal somatic support aimed at maximizing perinatal outcome lasted for about 7 weeks, with 77% of neonates being born alive and 85% of these infants having a normal outcome at 20 months of life. The data of this study will be helpful in counseling families and practitioners faced with such rare and complex cases.
2021
Brain death in pregnancy: a systematic review focusing on perinatal outcomes / Dodaro, Maria Gaia; Seidenari, Anna; Marino, Ignazio R; Berghella, Vincenzo; Bellussi, Federica. - In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. - ISSN 1097-6868. - ELETTRONICO. - 224:5(2021), pp. 445-469. [10.1016/j.ajog.2021.01.033]
Dodaro, Maria Gaia; Seidenari, Anna; Marino, Ignazio R; Berghella, Vincenzo; Bellussi, Federica
File in questo prodotto:
Eventuali allegati, non sono esposti

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/913023
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 7
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 4
social impact