In this paper we study the spontaneous development of symmetries in the early layers of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) during learning on natural images. Our architecture is built in such a way to mimic some properties of the early stages of biological visual systems. In particular, it contains a pre-filtering step l(0) defined in analogy with the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN). Moreover, the first convolutional layer is equipped with lateral connections defined as a propagation driven by a learned connectivity kernel, in analogy with the horizontal connectivity of the primary visual cortex (V1). We first show that the l(0) filter evolves during the training to reach a radially symmetric pattern well approximated by a Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG), which is a well-known model of the receptive profiles of LGN cells. In line with previous works on CNNs, the learned convolutional filters in the first layer can be approximated by Gabor functions, in agreement with well-established models for the receptive profiles of V1 simple cells. Here, we focus on the geometric properties of the learned lateral connectivity kernel of this layer, showing the emergence of orientation selectivity w.r.t. the tuning of the learned filters. We also examine the short-range connectivity and association fields induced by this connectivity kernel, and show qualitative and quantitative comparisons with known group-based models of V1 horizontal connections. These geometric properties arise spontaneously during the training of the CNN architecture, analogously to the emergence of symmetries in visual systems thanks to brain plasticity driven by external stimuli.

Bertoni, F., Montobbio, N., Sarti, A., Citti, G. (2021). Emergence of Lie Symmetries in Functional Architectures Learned by CNNs. FRONTIERS IN COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE, 15, 1-13 [10.3389/fncom.2021.694505].

Emergence of Lie Symmetries in Functional Architectures Learned by CNNs

Montobbio, Noemi;Sarti, Alessandro;Citti, Giovanna
2021

Abstract

In this paper we study the spontaneous development of symmetries in the early layers of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) during learning on natural images. Our architecture is built in such a way to mimic some properties of the early stages of biological visual systems. In particular, it contains a pre-filtering step l(0) defined in analogy with the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN). Moreover, the first convolutional layer is equipped with lateral connections defined as a propagation driven by a learned connectivity kernel, in analogy with the horizontal connectivity of the primary visual cortex (V1). We first show that the l(0) filter evolves during the training to reach a radially symmetric pattern well approximated by a Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG), which is a well-known model of the receptive profiles of LGN cells. In line with previous works on CNNs, the learned convolutional filters in the first layer can be approximated by Gabor functions, in agreement with well-established models for the receptive profiles of V1 simple cells. Here, we focus on the geometric properties of the learned lateral connectivity kernel of this layer, showing the emergence of orientation selectivity w.r.t. the tuning of the learned filters. We also examine the short-range connectivity and association fields induced by this connectivity kernel, and show qualitative and quantitative comparisons with known group-based models of V1 horizontal connections. These geometric properties arise spontaneously during the training of the CNN architecture, analogously to the emergence of symmetries in visual systems thanks to brain plasticity driven by external stimuli.
2021
Bertoni, F., Montobbio, N., Sarti, A., Citti, G. (2021). Emergence of Lie Symmetries in Functional Architectures Learned by CNNs. FRONTIERS IN COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE, 15, 1-13 [10.3389/fncom.2021.694505].
Bertoni, Federico; Montobbio, Noemi; Sarti, Alessandro; Citti, Giovanna
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/907719
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