Gilthead seabream is among the most important farmed fish species in the Mediterranean Sea. Several approaches are currently applied to assure a lower impact of diseases and higher productivity, including the exploration of the fish microbiome and its manipulation as a sustainable alternative to improve aquaculture practices. Here, using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, we explored the microbiome of farmed seabream to assess similarities and differences among microbial assemblages associated to different tissues and compare them with those in the surrounding environment. Seabream had distinct associated microbiomes according to the tissue and compared to the marine environment. The gut hosted the most diverse microbiome; different sets of dominant ASVs characterized the environmental and fish samples. The similarity between fish and environmental microbiomes was higher in seawater than sediment (up to 7.8 times), and the highest similarity (3.9%) was observed between gill and seawater, suggesting that gills are more closely interacting with the environment. We finally analyzed the potential connections occurring among microbiomes. These connections were relatively low among the host's tissues and, in particular, between the gut and the others fish-related microbiomes; other tissues, including skin and gills, were found to be the most connected microbiomes. Our results suggest that, in mariculture, seabream microbiomes reflect only partially those in their surrounding environment and that the host is the primary driver shaping the seabream microbiome. These data provide a step forward to understand the role of the microbiome in farmed fish and farming environments, useful to enhance disease control, fish health, and environmental sustainability.

Host-associated and Environmental Microbiomes in an Open-Sea Mediterranean Gilthead Sea Bream Fish Farm

Basili, Marco;Candela, Marco;
2022

Abstract

Gilthead seabream is among the most important farmed fish species in the Mediterranean Sea. Several approaches are currently applied to assure a lower impact of diseases and higher productivity, including the exploration of the fish microbiome and its manipulation as a sustainable alternative to improve aquaculture practices. Here, using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, we explored the microbiome of farmed seabream to assess similarities and differences among microbial assemblages associated to different tissues and compare them with those in the surrounding environment. Seabream had distinct associated microbiomes according to the tissue and compared to the marine environment. The gut hosted the most diverse microbiome; different sets of dominant ASVs characterized the environmental and fish samples. The similarity between fish and environmental microbiomes was higher in seawater than sediment (up to 7.8 times), and the highest similarity (3.9%) was observed between gill and seawater, suggesting that gills are more closely interacting with the environment. We finally analyzed the potential connections occurring among microbiomes. These connections were relatively low among the host's tissues and, in particular, between the gut and the others fish-related microbiomes; other tissues, including skin and gills, were found to be the most connected microbiomes. Our results suggest that, in mariculture, seabream microbiomes reflect only partially those in their surrounding environment and that the host is the primary driver shaping the seabream microbiome. These data provide a step forward to understand the role of the microbiome in farmed fish and farming environments, useful to enhance disease control, fish health, and environmental sustainability.
2022
Quero, Grazia Marina; Piredda, Roberta; Basili, Marco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Mirto, Simone; Manini, Elena; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Candela, Marco; Luna, Gian Marco
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
s00248-022-02120-7.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipo: Versione (PDF) editoriale
Licenza: Licenza per Accesso Aperto. Creative Commons Attribuzione (CCBY)
Dimensione 1.33 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.33 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/906119
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
social impact