Retinoic acid is a powerful regulator of brain development, however its postnatal functions only start to be elucidated. We show that retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta), is involved in neuroprotection of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (spMSNs), the cell type affected in different neuropsychiatric disorders and particularly prone to degenerate in Huntington disease (HD). Accordingly, the number of spMSNs was reduced in the striatum of adult Rar beta(-/-) mice, which may result from mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Mitochondria morphology was abnormal in mutant mice whereas in cultured striatal Rar beta(-/-) neurons mitochondria displayed exacerbated depolarization, and fragmentation followed by cell death in response to glutamate or thapsigargininduced calcium increase. In vivo, Rar beta(-/-)spMSNs were also more vulnerable to the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP), known to induce HD symptoms in human and rodents. In contrary, an RAR beta agonist, AC261066, decreased glutamate-induced toxicity in primary striatal neurons in vitro, and diminished mitochondrial dysfunction, spMSN cell death and motor deficits induced in wild type mice by 3NP. We demonstrate that the striatopallidal pathway is compromised in Rar beta(-/-) mice and associated with HD-like motor abnormalities. Importantly, similar motor abnormalities and selective reduction of spMSNs were induced by striatal or spMSNspecific inactivation of RAR beta, further supporting a neuroprotective role of RAR beta in postnatal striatum.

Retinoic acid receptor beta protects striatopallidal medium spiny neurons from mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration

Baldassarro, Vito Antonio;
2022

Abstract

Retinoic acid is a powerful regulator of brain development, however its postnatal functions only start to be elucidated. We show that retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta), is involved in neuroprotection of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (spMSNs), the cell type affected in different neuropsychiatric disorders and particularly prone to degenerate in Huntington disease (HD). Accordingly, the number of spMSNs was reduced in the striatum of adult Rar beta(-/-) mice, which may result from mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Mitochondria morphology was abnormal in mutant mice whereas in cultured striatal Rar beta(-/-) neurons mitochondria displayed exacerbated depolarization, and fragmentation followed by cell death in response to glutamate or thapsigargininduced calcium increase. In vivo, Rar beta(-/-)spMSNs were also more vulnerable to the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP), known to induce HD symptoms in human and rodents. In contrary, an RAR beta agonist, AC261066, decreased glutamate-induced toxicity in primary striatal neurons in vitro, and diminished mitochondrial dysfunction, spMSN cell death and motor deficits induced in wild type mice by 3NP. We demonstrate that the striatopallidal pathway is compromised in Rar beta(-/-) mice and associated with HD-like motor abnormalities. Importantly, similar motor abnormalities and selective reduction of spMSNs were induced by striatal or spMSNspecific inactivation of RAR beta, further supporting a neuroprotective role of RAR beta in postnatal striatum.
2022
Ciancia, Marion; Rataj-Baniowska, Monika; Zinter, Nicolas; Baldassarro, Vito Antonio; Fraulob, Valérie; Charles, Anne-Laure; Alvarez, Rosana; Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi; de Lera, Angel R; Geny, Bernard; Dollé, Pascal; Niewiadomska-Cimicka, Anna; Krężel, Wojciech
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/904832
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