Euclid is a mission of the European Space Agency that is designed to constrain the properties of dark energy and gravity via weak gravitational lensing and galaxy clustering. It will carry out a wide area imaging and spectroscopy survey (the Euclid Wide Survey: EWS) in visible and near-infrared bands, covering approximately 15 000 deg2 of extragalactic sky in six years. The wide-field telescope and instruments are optimised for pristine point spread function and reduced stray light, producing very crisp images. This paper presents the building of the Euclid reference survey: The sequence of pointings of EWS, deep fields, and calibration fields, as well as spacecraft movements followed by Euclid as it operates in a step-And-stare mode from its orbit around the Lagrange point L2. Each EWS pointing has four dithered frames; we simulated the dither pattern at the pixel level to analyse the effective coverage. We used up-To-date models for the sky background to define the Euclid region-of-interest (RoI). The building of the reference survey is highly constrained from calibration cadences, spacecraft constraints, and background levels; synergies with ground-based coverage were also considered. Via purposely built software, we first generated a schedule for the calibrations and deep fields observations. On a second stage, the RoI was tiled and scheduled with EWS observations, using an algorithm optimised to prioritise the best sky areas, produce a compact coverage, and ensure thermal stability. The result is the optimised reference survey RSD-2021A, which fulfils all constraints and is a good proxy for the final solution. The current EWS covers ∼14.500 deg2. The limiting AB magnitudes (5ρpoint-like source) achieved in its footprint are estimated to be 26.2 (visible band IE) and 24.5 (for near infrared bands YE, JE, HE); for spectroscopy, the Hα line flux limit is 2.10-16 erg-1 cm-2 s-1 at 1600 nm; and for diffuse emission, the surface brightness limits are 29.8 (visible band) and 28.4 (near infrared bands) mag arcsec-2.

Euclid preparation: I. the Euclid Wide Survey

Burigana C.;Derosa A.;Guzzo L.;Meneghetti M.;Amara A.;Auricchio N.;Branchini E.;Candini G. P.;Gillis B.;Giocoli C.;Marulli F.;Massey R.;Merlin E.;Moresco M.;Moscardini L.;Munari E.;Roncarelli M.;Zamorani G.;Baldi M.;Bardelli S.;Camera S.;Di Ferdinando D.;Farinelli R.;Maino D.;Medinaceli E.;Zucca E.;Baccigalupi C.;Borgani S.;Bozzo E.;Cappi A.;Castignani G.;Mainetti G.;Metcalf R. B.;Patrizii L.;Sapone D.;
2022

Abstract

Euclid is a mission of the European Space Agency that is designed to constrain the properties of dark energy and gravity via weak gravitational lensing and galaxy clustering. It will carry out a wide area imaging and spectroscopy survey (the Euclid Wide Survey: EWS) in visible and near-infrared bands, covering approximately 15 000 deg2 of extragalactic sky in six years. The wide-field telescope and instruments are optimised for pristine point spread function and reduced stray light, producing very crisp images. This paper presents the building of the Euclid reference survey: The sequence of pointings of EWS, deep fields, and calibration fields, as well as spacecraft movements followed by Euclid as it operates in a step-And-stare mode from its orbit around the Lagrange point L2. Each EWS pointing has four dithered frames; we simulated the dither pattern at the pixel level to analyse the effective coverage. We used up-To-date models for the sky background to define the Euclid region-of-interest (RoI). The building of the reference survey is highly constrained from calibration cadences, spacecraft constraints, and background levels; synergies with ground-based coverage were also considered. Via purposely built software, we first generated a schedule for the calibrations and deep fields observations. On a second stage, the RoI was tiled and scheduled with EWS observations, using an algorithm optimised to prioritise the best sky areas, produce a compact coverage, and ensure thermal stability. The result is the optimised reference survey RSD-2021A, which fulfils all constraints and is a good proxy for the final solution. The current EWS covers ∼14.500 deg2. The limiting AB magnitudes (5ρpoint-like source) achieved in its footprint are estimated to be 26.2 (visible band IE) and 24.5 (for near infrared bands YE, JE, HE); for spectroscopy, the Hα line flux limit is 2.10-16 erg-1 cm-2 s-1 at 1600 nm; and for diffuse emission, the surface brightness limits are 29.8 (visible band) and 28.4 (near infrared bands) mag arcsec-2.
Scaramella R.; Amiaux J.; Mellier Y.; Burigana C.; Carvalho C.S.; Cuillandre J.-C.; Da Silva A.; Derosa A.; Dinis J.; Maiorano E.; Maris M.; Tereno I.; Laureijs R.; Boenke T.; Buenadicha G.; Dupac X.; Gaspar Venancio L.M.; Gomez-Alvarez P.; Hoar J.; Lorenzo Alvarez J.; Racca G.D.; Saavedra-Criado G.; Schwartz J.; Vavrek R.; Schirmer M.; Aussel H.; Azzollini R.; Cardone V.F.; Cropper M.; Ealet A.; Garilli B.; Gillard W.; Granett B.R.; Guzzo L.; Hoekstra H.; Jahnke K.; Kitching T.; Maciaszek T.; Meneghetti M.; Miller L.; Nakajima R.; Niemi S.M.; Pasian F.; Percival W.J.; Pottinger S.; Sauvage M.; Scodeggio M.; Wachter S.; Zacchei A.; Aghanim N.; Amara A.; Auphan T.; Auricchio N.; Awan S.; Balestra A.; Bender R.; Bodendorf C.; Bonino D.; Branchini E.; Brau-Nogue S.; Brescia M.; Candini G.P.; Capobianco V.; Carbone C.; Carlberg R.G.; Carretero J.; Casas R.; Castander F.J.; Castellano M.; Cavuoti S.; Cimatti A.; Cledassou R.; Congedo G.; Conselice C.J.; Conversi L.; Copin Y.; Corcione L.; Costille A.; Courbin F.; Degaudenzi H.; Douspis M.; Dubath F.; Duncan C.A.J.; Dusini S.; Farrens S.; Ferriol S.; Fosalba P.; Fourmanoit N.; Frailis M.; Franceschi E.; Franzetti P.; Fumana M.; Gillis B.; Giocoli C.; Grazian A.; Grupp F.; Haugan S.V.H.; Holmes W.; Hormuth F.; Hudelot P.; Kermiche S.; Kiessling A.; Kilbinger M.; Kohley R.; Kubik B.; Kummel M.; Kunz M.; Kurki-Suonio H.; Lahav O.; Ligori S.; Lilje P.B.; Lloro I.; Mansutti O.; Marggraf O.; Markovic K.; Marulli F.; Massey R.; Maurogordato S.; Melchior M.; Merlin E.; Meylan G.; Mohr J.J.; Moresco M.; Morin B.; Moscardini L.; Munari E.; Nichol R.C.; Padilla C.; Paltani S.; Peacock J.; Pedersen K.; Pettorino V.; Pires S.; Poncet M.; Popa L.; Pozzetti L.; Raison F.; Rebolo R.; Rhodes J.; Rix H.-W.; Roncarelli M.; Rossetti E.; Saglia R.; Schneider P.; Schrabback T.; Secroun A.; Seidel G.; Serrano S.; Sirignano C.; Sirri G.; Skottfelt J.; Stanco L.; Starck J.L.; Tallada-Crespi P.; Tavagnacco D.; Taylor A.N.; Teplitz H.I.; Toledo-Moreo R.; Torradeflot F.; Trifoglio M.; Valentijn E.A.; Valenziano L.; Verdoes Kleijn G.A.; Wang Y.; Welikala N.; Weller J.; Wetzstein M.; Zamorani G.; Zoubian J.; Andreon S.; Baldi M.; Bardelli S.; Boucaud A.; Camera S.; Di Ferdinando D.; Fabbian G.; Farinelli R.; Galeotta S.; Gracia-Carpio J.; Maino D.; Medinaceli E.; Mei S.; Neissner C.; Polenta G.; Renzi A.; Romelli E.; Rosset C.; Sureau F.; Tenti M.; Vassallo T.; Zucca E.; Baccigalupi C.; Balaguera-Antolinez A.; Battaglia P.; Biviano A.; Borgani S.; Bozzo E.; Cabanac R.; Cappi A.; Casas S.; Castignani G.; Colodro-Conde C.; Coupon J.; Courtois H.M.; Cuby J.; De La Torre S.; Desai S.; Dole H.; Fabricius M.; Farina M.; Ferreira P.G.; Finelli F.; Flose-Reimberg P.; Fotopoulou S.; Ganga K.; Gozaliasl G.; Hook I.M.; Keihanen E.; Kirkpatrick C.C.; Liebing P.; Lindholm V.; Mainetti G.; Martinelli M.; Martinet N.; Maturi M.; McCracken H.J.; Metcalf R.B.; Morgante G.; Nightingale J.; Nucita A.; Patrizii L.; Potter D.; Riccio G.; Sanchez A.G.; Sapone D.; Schewtschenko J.A.; Schultheis M.; Scottez V.; Teyssier R.; Tutusaus I.; Valiviita J.; Viel M.; Vriend W.; Whittaker L.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/903571
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