Oxygenic phototrophs perform carbon fixation through the Calvin-Benson cycle. Different mechanisms adjust the cycle and the light-harvesting reactions to rapid environmental changes. Photosynthetic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key enzyme in the cycle. In land plants, different photosynthetic GAPDHs exist: the most abundant isoform is formed by A2B2 heterotetramers and the least abundant by A4 homotetramers. Regardless of the subunit composition, GAPDH is the major consumer of photosynthetic NADPH and its activity is strictly regulated. While A4-GAPDH is regulated by CP12, AB-GAPDH is autonomously regulated through the C-terminal extension (CTE) of its B subunits. Reversible inhibition of AB-GAPDH occurs via the oxidation of a cysteine pair located in the CTE and the substitution of NADP(H) with NAD(H) in the cofactor-binding site. These combined conditions lead to a change in the oligomerization state and enzyme inhibition. SEC-SAXS and single-particle cryo-EM analysis were applied to reveal the structural basis of this regulatory mechanism. Both approaches revealed that spinach (A2B2)n-GAPDH oligomers with n = 1, 2, 4 and 5 co-exist in a dynamic system. B subunits mediate the contacts between adjacent tetramers in A4B4 and A8B8 oligomers. The CTE of each B subunit penetrates into the active site of a B subunit of the adjacent tetramer, which in turn moves its CTE in the opposite direction, effectively preventing the binding of the substrate 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate in the B subunits. The whole mechanism is made possible, and eventually controlled, by pyridine nucleotides. In fact, NAD(H), by removing NADP(H) from A subunits, allows the entrance of the CTE into the active site of the B subunit, hence stabilizing inhibited oligomers.

Unravelling the regulation pathway of photosynthetic AB-GAPDH

Gurrieri, Libero;Fanti, Silvia;Falini, Giuseppe;Trost, Paolo;Fermani, Simona
Penultimo
;
Sparla, Francesca
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Oxygenic phototrophs perform carbon fixation through the Calvin-Benson cycle. Different mechanisms adjust the cycle and the light-harvesting reactions to rapid environmental changes. Photosynthetic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key enzyme in the cycle. In land plants, different photosynthetic GAPDHs exist: the most abundant isoform is formed by A2B2 heterotetramers and the least abundant by A4 homotetramers. Regardless of the subunit composition, GAPDH is the major consumer of photosynthetic NADPH and its activity is strictly regulated. While A4-GAPDH is regulated by CP12, AB-GAPDH is autonomously regulated through the C-terminal extension (CTE) of its B subunits. Reversible inhibition of AB-GAPDH occurs via the oxidation of a cysteine pair located in the CTE and the substitution of NADP(H) with NAD(H) in the cofactor-binding site. These combined conditions lead to a change in the oligomerization state and enzyme inhibition. SEC-SAXS and single-particle cryo-EM analysis were applied to reveal the structural basis of this regulatory mechanism. Both approaches revealed that spinach (A2B2)n-GAPDH oligomers with n = 1, 2, 4 and 5 co-exist in a dynamic system. B subunits mediate the contacts between adjacent tetramers in A4B4 and A8B8 oligomers. The CTE of each B subunit penetrates into the active site of a B subunit of the adjacent tetramer, which in turn moves its CTE in the opposite direction, effectively preventing the binding of the substrate 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate in the B subunits. The whole mechanism is made possible, and eventually controlled, by pyridine nucleotides. In fact, NAD(H), by removing NADP(H) from A subunits, allows the entrance of the CTE into the active site of the B subunit, hence stabilizing inhibited oligomers.
Marotta, Roberto; Del Giudice, Alessandra; Gurrieri, Libero; Fanti, Silvia; Swuec, Paolo; Galantini, Luciano; Falini, Giuseppe; Trost, Paolo; Fermani, Simona; Sparla, Francesca
File in questo prodotto:
Eventuali allegati, non sono esposti

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/903094
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact