Introduction: Onychomycosis is the most common nail disorder in adults, with high recurrence and relapse rates. Its diagnosis may be difficult by non-experts because the clinical signs may overlap with other dermatoses. The treatment may be challenging, as it should be patient-tailored. Methods: An online survey was conducted among European Nail Society (ENS) members to provide recommendations on the diagnosis and assessment of distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO) in non-specialized clinical environments, as well as recommendations for patient referral. Results: DLSO diagnosis is predominantly based on clinical aspects, and microscopy and fungal culture are commonly employed to establish the diagnosis. Assessment of clinical features is the main method for DLSO follow-up, and the main criterion to define cure is a combination of mycologic cure and clinical cure. The most commonly selected treatments for onychomycosis include oral antifungals, topical antifungals, and nail debridement. According to the nail experts, predisposing factors of DLSO to be evaluated include concurrent tinea pedis diagnosis, immunocompromised status, and diabetes. The minimum clinical aspects to be evaluated for DLSO diagnosis should include subungual hyperkeratosis, white-yellow-orange subungual scales, and absence of salmon-pink coloration. Recommendations for clinical signs that should be evaluated to confirm treatment effectiveness include normal appearance and color of the nail, reduction or absence of scales under the nail, and absence of onycholysis. Recommendations for specialist referral include lack of treatment effectiveness, need of additional therapies, concurrent presence of other diseases or comorbidities, severe DLSO, and presence of a dermatophytoma or involvement of the nail matrix. Conclusions: According to the surveyed nail experts, after evaluating clinical signs and predisposing factors for DLSO, the diagnosis should include subungual hyperkeratosis, nail color (yellow-orange), and onycholysis and thickening. In cases of severe DLSO, when there is treatment failure, concomitant diseases/comorbidities, presence of a dermatophytoma or involvement of the nail matrix, or involvement of several/all nails, referral should be considered.

Onychomycosis: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Assessment of Treatment Efficacy, and Specialist Referral. The CONSONANCE Consensus Project

Piraccini BM;Starace M;Iorizzo M;
2022

Abstract

Introduction: Onychomycosis is the most common nail disorder in adults, with high recurrence and relapse rates. Its diagnosis may be difficult by non-experts because the clinical signs may overlap with other dermatoses. The treatment may be challenging, as it should be patient-tailored. Methods: An online survey was conducted among European Nail Society (ENS) members to provide recommendations on the diagnosis and assessment of distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO) in non-specialized clinical environments, as well as recommendations for patient referral. Results: DLSO diagnosis is predominantly based on clinical aspects, and microscopy and fungal culture are commonly employed to establish the diagnosis. Assessment of clinical features is the main method for DLSO follow-up, and the main criterion to define cure is a combination of mycologic cure and clinical cure. The most commonly selected treatments for onychomycosis include oral antifungals, topical antifungals, and nail debridement. According to the nail experts, predisposing factors of DLSO to be evaluated include concurrent tinea pedis diagnosis, immunocompromised status, and diabetes. The minimum clinical aspects to be evaluated for DLSO diagnosis should include subungual hyperkeratosis, white-yellow-orange subungual scales, and absence of salmon-pink coloration. Recommendations for clinical signs that should be evaluated to confirm treatment effectiveness include normal appearance and color of the nail, reduction or absence of scales under the nail, and absence of onycholysis. Recommendations for specialist referral include lack of treatment effectiveness, need of additional therapies, concurrent presence of other diseases or comorbidities, severe DLSO, and presence of a dermatophytoma or involvement of the nail matrix. Conclusions: According to the surveyed nail experts, after evaluating clinical signs and predisposing factors for DLSO, the diagnosis should include subungual hyperkeratosis, nail color (yellow-orange), and onycholysis and thickening. In cases of severe DLSO, when there is treatment failure, concomitant diseases/comorbidities, presence of a dermatophytoma or involvement of the nail matrix, or involvement of several/all nails, referral should be considered.
Piraccini BM, Starace M, Rubin AI, Di Chiacchio NG, Iorizzo M, Rigopoulos D; A working group of the European Nail Society.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/902331
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