The toxicity of chromium compounds has been evaluated by various authorities including the SCF, the UK Expert group on Vitamin and Minerals (EVM), the US Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The SCF has issued an opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) of trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) and concluded that limited data from studies on subchronic, chronic and reproductive toxicity on soluble trivalent chromium salts and the available human data do not give clear information on the dose-response relationships and therefore a UL could not be derived. The US FNB concluded that data from animal and human studies are insufficient to establish a UL for soluble trivalent chromium salts. The EVM also concluded that overall there are insufficient data from human and animal studies to derive a safe upper level for chromium. However, in the EVM opinion it was indicated that a total daily intake of about 0.15 mg chromium(III)/kg bw/day (or 10 mg/person) was expected to be without adverse health effects. Chromium nitrate as a source of chromium added for nutritional purposes to food supplements The WHO considered that supplementation of chromium in adults should not exceed 250 μg/day. Information on the toxicity of chromium(III) is limited but given the available data the Panel concludes that the use of chromium(III) nitrate as a source of chromium(III) in food supplements would not be of safety concern provided that the level for supplementation of 250 µg chromium/day recommended by the WHO is not exceeded. In addition, the Panel notes that recent reviews and evaluations of chromium(III) point at conflicting outcomes of genotoxicity assays and report diverging views and conclusions on the consequences of this genotoxicity issue for the ultimate safety assessment of chromium(III). The Panel notes that additional relevant in vivo studies have shown that exposure to chromium(III) chloride and chromium(III) nitrate induced DNA deletions in mice and yeast respectively and that it was recently reported that occupational exposure to chromium(III) can lead to DNA damage to human peripheral lymphocyte as evidenced by the Comet assay. The Panel is aware that given this situation the safety of chromium(III) might need to be re-evaluated in light of these recent reviews and evaluations.

Chromium nitrate as a source of chromium added for nutritional purposes to food supplements

GRILLI, SANDRO;
2009

Abstract

The toxicity of chromium compounds has been evaluated by various authorities including the SCF, the UK Expert group on Vitamin and Minerals (EVM), the US Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The SCF has issued an opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) of trivalent chromium (chromium(III)) and concluded that limited data from studies on subchronic, chronic and reproductive toxicity on soluble trivalent chromium salts and the available human data do not give clear information on the dose-response relationships and therefore a UL could not be derived. The US FNB concluded that data from animal and human studies are insufficient to establish a UL for soluble trivalent chromium salts. The EVM also concluded that overall there are insufficient data from human and animal studies to derive a safe upper level for chromium. However, in the EVM opinion it was indicated that a total daily intake of about 0.15 mg chromium(III)/kg bw/day (or 10 mg/person) was expected to be without adverse health effects. Chromium nitrate as a source of chromium added for nutritional purposes to food supplements The WHO considered that supplementation of chromium in adults should not exceed 250 μg/day. Information on the toxicity of chromium(III) is limited but given the available data the Panel concludes that the use of chromium(III) nitrate as a source of chromium(III) in food supplements would not be of safety concern provided that the level for supplementation of 250 µg chromium/day recommended by the WHO is not exceeded. In addition, the Panel notes that recent reviews and evaluations of chromium(III) point at conflicting outcomes of genotoxicity assays and report diverging views and conclusions on the consequences of this genotoxicity issue for the ultimate safety assessment of chromium(III). The Panel notes that additional relevant in vivo studies have shown that exposure to chromium(III) chloride and chromium(III) nitrate induced DNA deletions in mice and yeast respectively and that it was recently reported that occupational exposure to chromium(III) can lead to DNA damage to human peripheral lymphocyte as evidenced by the Comet assay. The Panel is aware that given this situation the safety of chromium(III) might need to be re-evaluated in light of these recent reviews and evaluations.
F. Aguilar; U.R. Charrondiere; B. Dusemund; P. Galtier; J. Gilbert; D.M. Gott; S. Grilli; R. Guertler; G.E.N. Kass; J. Koenig; C. Lambré; J-C. Larsen; J-C. Leblanc; A. Mortensen; D. Parent-Massin; I. Pratt; I.M.C.M. Rietjens; I. Stankovic; P. Tobback; T. Verguieva; R. Woutersen.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/90131
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