Simple Summary Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now a cornerstone of systemic treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, their efficacy is blunted by mechanisms of tumour resistance in many patients. This review reports on the state of the art of resistance to ICIs, focusing on HCC, with the aim to provide clear and direct information to clinicians and researchers. Growing knowledge on the mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy can indeed guide the choice of and expand the application of novel combined treatments. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and a relevant global health problem. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent the most effective systemic treatment for HCC. However, due to primary resistance, approximately 40% of HCC patients do not achieve a disease control with ICIs. Moreover, a similar proportion will experience disease progression after an initial response caused by secondary resistance. This review describes the mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance and reports the ongoing therapeutic strategies to overcome these obstacles.

Mechanisms of Primary and Acquired Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma / De Lorenzo, Stefania; Tovoli, Francesco; Trevisani, Franco. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - ELETTRONICO. - 14:19(2022), pp. 4616.1-4616.16. [10.3390/cancers14194616]

Mechanisms of Primary and Acquired Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Tovoli, Francesco;Trevisani, Franco
2022

Abstract

Simple Summary Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now a cornerstone of systemic treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, their efficacy is blunted by mechanisms of tumour resistance in many patients. This review reports on the state of the art of resistance to ICIs, focusing on HCC, with the aim to provide clear and direct information to clinicians and researchers. Growing knowledge on the mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy can indeed guide the choice of and expand the application of novel combined treatments. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and a relevant global health problem. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent the most effective systemic treatment for HCC. However, due to primary resistance, approximately 40% of HCC patients do not achieve a disease control with ICIs. Moreover, a similar proportion will experience disease progression after an initial response caused by secondary resistance. This review describes the mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance and reports the ongoing therapeutic strategies to overcome these obstacles.
2022
Mechanisms of Primary and Acquired Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma / De Lorenzo, Stefania; Tovoli, Francesco; Trevisani, Franco. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - ELETTRONICO. - 14:19(2022), pp. 4616.1-4616.16. [10.3390/cancers14194616]
De Lorenzo, Stefania; Tovoli, Francesco; Trevisani, Franco
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/900999
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