Rationale: High altitude-induced hypocapnic alkalosis generates central sleep apnea (CSA). In Nepal, two ethnic groups live at medium-to-high altitude: Tamangs originate from low-altitude Tibeto-Burman populations, whereas Sherpas descend from high-altitude Tibetans. Objective: To compare apnea severity at low and high altitude between Sherpas and Tamangs. Methods: Polygraphy recordings, including airflow and oxygen saturation, were performed in Nepal at "low " (2,030 m) and "high " (4,380 m) altitudes. Resting ventilation (V?E) and mixed-exhaled CO2 (FECO2) were also measured at the same altitudes. Differences in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and % of nocturnal periodic breathing (NPB) at the two altitudes were compared between ethnicities. Measurements and Main Results: Twenty Sherpas and 20 Tamangs were included (males, median [interquartile range] age: 24.5 [21.5-27.8] years vs. 26.0 [21.5-39.8] years, body mass index: 23.9 [22.1-26.1] kg/m(2) vs. 25.21 [20.6-27.6] kg/m(2)). Compared with Tamangs, Sherpas showed a lower increase in AHI (+7.5 [2.6-17.2]/h vs. +31.5 [18.2-57.3]/h, p < 0.001), ODI (+13.8 [5.5-28.2]/h vs. +42.0 [22.6-77.6]/h, p < 0.001), and NPB proportion (+0.9 [0-3.5]% vs. +12.8 [3.1-27.4]%, p < 0.001) from low to high altitude. Resting V?E was higher in Sherpas versus Tamangs at both low (8.45 [6.89-10.70] l/min vs. 6.3 [4.9-8.3] l/min, p = 0.005) and high (9.7 [8.5-11] l/min vs. 8.74 [7.39-9.73] l/min, p = 0.020) altitudes, whereas the mean +/- standard deviation FECO2 decrease between low and high altitude was greater in Tamangs versus Sherpas (-0.50% +/- 0.44% vs. -0.80% +/- 0.33%, p < 0.023). Conclusion: Overall, altitude-adapted Sherpas showed a 3.2-times smaller increase in sleep-disordered breathing between low and high altitude compared with Tamangs, and higher ventilation and a smaller drop in FECO2 at high altitude. These data suggest that genetic differences in breathing control can be protective against CSA.

Altitude-Induced Sleep Apnea Is Highly Dependent on Ethnic Background (Sherpa Vs. Tamang) / Heiniger G.; Walbaum S.; Sartori C.; Lovis A.; Sazzini M.; Wellman A.; Heinzer R.. - In: HIGH ALTITUDE MEDICINE & BIOLOGY. - ISSN 1557-8682. - ELETTRONICO. - 23:2(2022), pp. 165-172. [10.1089/ham.2022.0012]

Altitude-Induced Sleep Apnea Is Highly Dependent on Ethnic Background (Sherpa Vs. Tamang)

Sazzini M.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2022

Abstract

Rationale: High altitude-induced hypocapnic alkalosis generates central sleep apnea (CSA). In Nepal, two ethnic groups live at medium-to-high altitude: Tamangs originate from low-altitude Tibeto-Burman populations, whereas Sherpas descend from high-altitude Tibetans. Objective: To compare apnea severity at low and high altitude between Sherpas and Tamangs. Methods: Polygraphy recordings, including airflow and oxygen saturation, were performed in Nepal at "low " (2,030 m) and "high " (4,380 m) altitudes. Resting ventilation (V?E) and mixed-exhaled CO2 (FECO2) were also measured at the same altitudes. Differences in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and % of nocturnal periodic breathing (NPB) at the two altitudes were compared between ethnicities. Measurements and Main Results: Twenty Sherpas and 20 Tamangs were included (males, median [interquartile range] age: 24.5 [21.5-27.8] years vs. 26.0 [21.5-39.8] years, body mass index: 23.9 [22.1-26.1] kg/m(2) vs. 25.21 [20.6-27.6] kg/m(2)). Compared with Tamangs, Sherpas showed a lower increase in AHI (+7.5 [2.6-17.2]/h vs. +31.5 [18.2-57.3]/h, p < 0.001), ODI (+13.8 [5.5-28.2]/h vs. +42.0 [22.6-77.6]/h, p < 0.001), and NPB proportion (+0.9 [0-3.5]% vs. +12.8 [3.1-27.4]%, p < 0.001) from low to high altitude. Resting V?E was higher in Sherpas versus Tamangs at both low (8.45 [6.89-10.70] l/min vs. 6.3 [4.9-8.3] l/min, p = 0.005) and high (9.7 [8.5-11] l/min vs. 8.74 [7.39-9.73] l/min, p = 0.020) altitudes, whereas the mean +/- standard deviation FECO2 decrease between low and high altitude was greater in Tamangs versus Sherpas (-0.50% +/- 0.44% vs. -0.80% +/- 0.33%, p < 0.023). Conclusion: Overall, altitude-adapted Sherpas showed a 3.2-times smaller increase in sleep-disordered breathing between low and high altitude compared with Tamangs, and higher ventilation and a smaller drop in FECO2 at high altitude. These data suggest that genetic differences in breathing control can be protective against CSA.
2022
Altitude-Induced Sleep Apnea Is Highly Dependent on Ethnic Background (Sherpa Vs. Tamang) / Heiniger G.; Walbaum S.; Sartori C.; Lovis A.; Sazzini M.; Wellman A.; Heinzer R.. - In: HIGH ALTITUDE MEDICINE & BIOLOGY. - ISSN 1557-8682. - ELETTRONICO. - 23:2(2022), pp. 165-172. [10.1089/ham.2022.0012]
Heiniger G.; Walbaum S.; Sartori C.; Lovis A.; Sazzini M.; Wellman A.; Heinzer R.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/899075
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