Fruit growth is a biophysical process that depends mainly on the daily balance between vascular (xylem and phloem) and transpiration flows. This work examines the seasonal and daily behaviour of apricot fruit growth as well as their vascular and transpiration flows. Seasonal patterns of the shoot and fruit growth, as well as fruit surface conductance and dry matter accumulation, were monitored at regular times intervals during the season on "Farbela" and "Ladycot" cultivars. In addition, the daily courses of leaf and stem water potentials and leaf gas exchanges were monitored at 66 and 109 DAFB. On the cultivar "Farbela", the daily patterns of phloem, xylem, and transpiration flow to and from the fruit were determined through precise and continuous monitoring of fruit diameter variations. Branch sap flow was also determined through the thermal balance method. Apricot fruit growth showed a double sigmoid pattern, typical of other drupaceous species. Stem and leaf water potential maintained values above the stress threshold, and in the last part of the season, the leaf photosynthetic rate increased. Leaves received higher sap flow in the morning and at midday, while a higher amount of xylem water was moved to the fruit in the late afternoon. Fruit showed high transpiration rates, which led to fruit shrinkage during the warmest hours of the day. High xylem inflows balanced the transpiratory losses, while phloem import was lower and occurred mainly during the mid-day hours. As a result, the fruit grew mostly in the late afternoon and night, and its growth was sustained mainly by xylem fluxes, which represented over 90% of the fruit's total inflows. Later in the season, fruit transpiration and xylem flow decreased but did not stop even at harvest. Phloem import increased its importance throughout the season and, in the final stages, accounted for 36% and then 66% of the daily relative contribution to fruit growth. This knowledge represents a starting point to improving apricot orchard management in terms of irrigation and fertilisation.

Vascular and Transpiration Flows Affecting Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Fruit Growth / Giovannini A.; Venturi M.; Gutierrez-gordillo S.; Manfrini L.; Corelli-grappadelli L.; Morandi B.. - In: AGRONOMY. - ISSN 2073-4395. - ELETTRONICO. - 12:5(2022), pp. 989.1-989.16. [10.3390/agronomy12050989]

Vascular and Transpiration Flows Affecting Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Fruit Growth

Giovannini A.;Venturi M.
;
Manfrini L.;Corelli-grappadelli L.;Morandi B.
2022

Abstract

Fruit growth is a biophysical process that depends mainly on the daily balance between vascular (xylem and phloem) and transpiration flows. This work examines the seasonal and daily behaviour of apricot fruit growth as well as their vascular and transpiration flows. Seasonal patterns of the shoot and fruit growth, as well as fruit surface conductance and dry matter accumulation, were monitored at regular times intervals during the season on "Farbela" and "Ladycot" cultivars. In addition, the daily courses of leaf and stem water potentials and leaf gas exchanges were monitored at 66 and 109 DAFB. On the cultivar "Farbela", the daily patterns of phloem, xylem, and transpiration flow to and from the fruit were determined through precise and continuous monitoring of fruit diameter variations. Branch sap flow was also determined through the thermal balance method. Apricot fruit growth showed a double sigmoid pattern, typical of other drupaceous species. Stem and leaf water potential maintained values above the stress threshold, and in the last part of the season, the leaf photosynthetic rate increased. Leaves received higher sap flow in the morning and at midday, while a higher amount of xylem water was moved to the fruit in the late afternoon. Fruit showed high transpiration rates, which led to fruit shrinkage during the warmest hours of the day. High xylem inflows balanced the transpiratory losses, while phloem import was lower and occurred mainly during the mid-day hours. As a result, the fruit grew mostly in the late afternoon and night, and its growth was sustained mainly by xylem fluxes, which represented over 90% of the fruit's total inflows. Later in the season, fruit transpiration and xylem flow decreased but did not stop even at harvest. Phloem import increased its importance throughout the season and, in the final stages, accounted for 36% and then 66% of the daily relative contribution to fruit growth. This knowledge represents a starting point to improving apricot orchard management in terms of irrigation and fertilisation.
2022
Vascular and Transpiration Flows Affecting Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Fruit Growth / Giovannini A.; Venturi M.; Gutierrez-gordillo S.; Manfrini L.; Corelli-grappadelli L.; Morandi B.. - In: AGRONOMY. - ISSN 2073-4395. - ELETTRONICO. - 12:5(2022), pp. 989.1-989.16. [10.3390/agronomy12050989]
Giovannini A.; Venturi M.; Gutierrez-gordillo S.; Manfrini L.; Corelli-grappadelli L.; Morandi B.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/897781
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