Here, we exploit our mechanochemical synthesis for co-crystallization of an organic antiseptic, proflavine, with metal-based antimicrobials (silver, copper, zinc, and gallium). Our previous studies have looked for general antimicrobial activity for the co-crystals: proflavine center dot AgNO3, proflavine center dot CuCl, ZnCl3[Proflavinium], [Proflavinium](2)[ZnCl4]center dot H2O, and [Proflavinium](3)[Ga(oxalate)(3)]center dot 4H(2)O. Here, we explore and compare more precisely the bacteriostatic (minimal inhibitory concentrations) and antibiofilm (prevention of cell attachment and propagation) activities of the co-crystals. For this, we choose three prominent "ESKAPE" bacterial pathogens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial behavior of the co-crystals was compared to that of the separate components of the polycrystalline samples to ascertain whether the proflavine-metal complex association in the solid state provided effective antimicrobial performance. We were particularly interested to see if the co-crystals were effective in preventing bacteria from initiating and propagating the biofilm mode of growth, as this growth form provides high antimicrobial resistance properties. We found that for the planktonic lifestyle of growth of the three bacterial strains, different co-crystal formulations gave selectivity for best performance. For the biofilm state of growth, we see that the silver proflavine co-crystal has the best overall antibiofilm activity against all three organisms. However, other proflavine-metal co-crystals also show practical antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli and S. aureus. While not all proflavine-metal co-crystals demonstrated enhanced antimicrobial efficacy over their constituents alone, all possessed acceptable antimicrobial properties while trapped in the co-crystal form. We also demonstrate that the metal-proflavine crystals retain antimicrobial activity in storage. This work defines that co-crystallization of metal compounds and organic antimicrobials has a potential role in the quest for antimicrobials/antiseptics in the defense against bacteria in our antimicrobial resistance era.

Comparison of Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Proflavine Co-crystallized with Silver, Copper, Zinc, and Gallium Salts / Lekhan, Andrii; Fiore, Cecilia; Shemchuk, Oleksii; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Braga, Dario; Turner, Raymond J. - In: ACS APPLIED BIO MATERIALS. - ISSN 2576-6422. - ELETTRONICO. - 5:9(2022), pp. 4203-4212. [10.1021/acsabm.2c00404]

Comparison of Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Proflavine Co-crystallized with Silver, Copper, Zinc, and Gallium Salts

Fiore, Cecilia;Shemchuk, Oleksii;Grepioni, Fabrizia;Braga, Dario
;
Turner, Raymond J
2022

Abstract

Here, we exploit our mechanochemical synthesis for co-crystallization of an organic antiseptic, proflavine, with metal-based antimicrobials (silver, copper, zinc, and gallium). Our previous studies have looked for general antimicrobial activity for the co-crystals: proflavine center dot AgNO3, proflavine center dot CuCl, ZnCl3[Proflavinium], [Proflavinium](2)[ZnCl4]center dot H2O, and [Proflavinium](3)[Ga(oxalate)(3)]center dot 4H(2)O. Here, we explore and compare more precisely the bacteriostatic (minimal inhibitory concentrations) and antibiofilm (prevention of cell attachment and propagation) activities of the co-crystals. For this, we choose three prominent "ESKAPE" bacterial pathogens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial behavior of the co-crystals was compared to that of the separate components of the polycrystalline samples to ascertain whether the proflavine-metal complex association in the solid state provided effective antimicrobial performance. We were particularly interested to see if the co-crystals were effective in preventing bacteria from initiating and propagating the biofilm mode of growth, as this growth form provides high antimicrobial resistance properties. We found that for the planktonic lifestyle of growth of the three bacterial strains, different co-crystal formulations gave selectivity for best performance. For the biofilm state of growth, we see that the silver proflavine co-crystal has the best overall antibiofilm activity against all three organisms. However, other proflavine-metal co-crystals also show practical antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli and S. aureus. While not all proflavine-metal co-crystals demonstrated enhanced antimicrobial efficacy over their constituents alone, all possessed acceptable antimicrobial properties while trapped in the co-crystal form. We also demonstrate that the metal-proflavine crystals retain antimicrobial activity in storage. This work defines that co-crystallization of metal compounds and organic antimicrobials has a potential role in the quest for antimicrobials/antiseptics in the defense against bacteria in our antimicrobial resistance era.
2022
Comparison of Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Proflavine Co-crystallized with Silver, Copper, Zinc, and Gallium Salts / Lekhan, Andrii; Fiore, Cecilia; Shemchuk, Oleksii; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Braga, Dario; Turner, Raymond J. - In: ACS APPLIED BIO MATERIALS. - ISSN 2576-6422. - ELETTRONICO. - 5:9(2022), pp. 4203-4212. [10.1021/acsabm.2c00404]
Lekhan, Andrii; Fiore, Cecilia; Shemchuk, Oleksii; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Braga, Dario; Turner, Raymond J
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/897381
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