Background: Published reports on the adverse mental health impacts of the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic suggest an emerging global mental health crisis. However, the trajectories of these mental health impacts over multiple COVID-19 peaks and corresponding lockdowns are unknown. This study explored the trajectories of anxiety and depression over two consecutive lockdowns during the first nine months of the pandemic in Europe (April 2020-January 2021) and examined whether they varied as a function of different psychological flexibility and inflexibility profiles. Methods: A total of 569 Italians completed online surveys at four assessment points. Trajectories of anxiety and depression were examined with latent growth modeling and according to different psychological flexibility and inflexibility profiles. Results: Anxiety increased linearly throughout the study period, whereas depression displayed a quadratic trajectory evidencing a decrease with the easing of the first lockdown followed by an increase during the second lockdown. Furthermore, two profiles were identified that displayed different anxiety and depression trajectories. Compared to the psychologically flexible profile, the psychologically inflexible profile reported significantly higher anxiety and depression which remained higher across the study period. Limitations: A reliance on self-report measures and convenience sampling constitute key study limitations. Conclusions: Results suggest that high psychological inflexibility is a risk factor for prolonged elevated anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas high psychological flexibility is a protective factor. Psychological flexibility and inflexibility should be targeted by preventive public health interventions that harness evidence-based strategies shown to effectively target these factors.

Landi, G., Pakenham, K.I., Crocetti, E., Tossani, E., Grandi, S. (2022). The trajectories of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic and the protective role of psychological flexibility: A four-wave longitudinal study. JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS, 307, 69-78 [10.1016/j.jad.2022.03.067].

The trajectories of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic and the protective role of psychological flexibility: A four-wave longitudinal study

Landi, Giulia
Primo
;
Crocetti, Elisabetta;Tossani, Eliana
Penultimo
;
Grandi, Silvana
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Background: Published reports on the adverse mental health impacts of the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic suggest an emerging global mental health crisis. However, the trajectories of these mental health impacts over multiple COVID-19 peaks and corresponding lockdowns are unknown. This study explored the trajectories of anxiety and depression over two consecutive lockdowns during the first nine months of the pandemic in Europe (April 2020-January 2021) and examined whether they varied as a function of different psychological flexibility and inflexibility profiles. Methods: A total of 569 Italians completed online surveys at four assessment points. Trajectories of anxiety and depression were examined with latent growth modeling and according to different psychological flexibility and inflexibility profiles. Results: Anxiety increased linearly throughout the study period, whereas depression displayed a quadratic trajectory evidencing a decrease with the easing of the first lockdown followed by an increase during the second lockdown. Furthermore, two profiles were identified that displayed different anxiety and depression trajectories. Compared to the psychologically flexible profile, the psychologically inflexible profile reported significantly higher anxiety and depression which remained higher across the study period. Limitations: A reliance on self-report measures and convenience sampling constitute key study limitations. Conclusions: Results suggest that high psychological inflexibility is a risk factor for prolonged elevated anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas high psychological flexibility is a protective factor. Psychological flexibility and inflexibility should be targeted by preventive public health interventions that harness evidence-based strategies shown to effectively target these factors.
2022
Landi, G., Pakenham, K.I., Crocetti, E., Tossani, E., Grandi, S. (2022). The trajectories of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic and the protective role of psychological flexibility: A four-wave longitudinal study. JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS, 307, 69-78 [10.1016/j.jad.2022.03.067].
Landi, Giulia; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Tossani, Eliana; Grandi, Silvana
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/895264
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