The present review explores the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Human XOR is a multi-level regulated enzyme, which has many physiological functions, but that is also implicated in several pathological processes. The main XOR activities are the purine catabolism, which generates uric acid, and the regulation of cell redox state and cell signaling, through the production of reactive oxygen species. XOR dysregulation may lead to hyperuricemia and oxidative stress, which could have a pathogenic role in the initial phases of CKD, by promoting cell injury, hypertension, chronic inflammation and metabolic derangements. Hypertension is common in CKD patients and many mechanisms inducing it (upregulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis) may be influenced by XOR products. High XOR activity and hyperuricemia are also risk factors for obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome that are frequent CKD causes. Moreover, CKD is common in patients with gout, which is characterized by hyperuricemia, and in patients with cardiovascular diseases, which are associated with hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Although hyperuricemia is undoubtedly related to CKD, controversial findings have been hitherto reported in patients treated with urate-lowering therapies.

Chronic kidney disease: Which role for xanthine oxidoreductase activity and products? / Polito L.; Bortolotti M.; Battelli M.G.; Bolognesi A.. - In: PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 1043-6618. - ELETTRONICO. - 184:(2022), pp. 106407.1-106407.9. [10.1016/j.phrs.2022.106407]

Chronic kidney disease: Which role for xanthine oxidoreductase activity and products?

Polito L.
Primo
;
Bortolotti M.;Battelli M. G.
Penultimo
;
Bolognesi A.
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

The present review explores the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Human XOR is a multi-level regulated enzyme, which has many physiological functions, but that is also implicated in several pathological processes. The main XOR activities are the purine catabolism, which generates uric acid, and the regulation of cell redox state and cell signaling, through the production of reactive oxygen species. XOR dysregulation may lead to hyperuricemia and oxidative stress, which could have a pathogenic role in the initial phases of CKD, by promoting cell injury, hypertension, chronic inflammation and metabolic derangements. Hypertension is common in CKD patients and many mechanisms inducing it (upregulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis) may be influenced by XOR products. High XOR activity and hyperuricemia are also risk factors for obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome that are frequent CKD causes. Moreover, CKD is common in patients with gout, which is characterized by hyperuricemia, and in patients with cardiovascular diseases, which are associated with hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Although hyperuricemia is undoubtedly related to CKD, controversial findings have been hitherto reported in patients treated with urate-lowering therapies.
2022
Chronic kidney disease: Which role for xanthine oxidoreductase activity and products? / Polito L.; Bortolotti M.; Battelli M.G.; Bolognesi A.. - In: PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 1043-6618. - ELETTRONICO. - 184:(2022), pp. 106407.1-106407.9. [10.1016/j.phrs.2022.106407]
Polito L.; Bortolotti M.; Battelli M.G.; Bolognesi A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/894973
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