The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute physiological response to different warm-up protocols on the dynamic apnea performance. The traditional approach, including a series of short-mid dives in water (WET warm-up), was compared to a more recent strategy, consisting in exercises performed outside the water (DRY warm-up). Nine athletes were tested in two different sessions, in which the only difference was the warm-up executed before 75m of dynamic apnea. Heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, hemoglobin, blood lactate and the rate of perceived exertion were recorded and analyzed. With respect to WET condition, DRY showed lower lactate level before the dive (1.93 vs. 2.60 mmol/L, p = 0.006), higher autonomic indices and lower heart rate during the subsequent dynamic apnea. A significant correlation between lactate produced during WET with the duration of the subsequent dynamic apnea, suggests that higher lactate levels could affect the dive performance (72 vs. 70 sec, p = 0.028). The hemoglobin concentration and the rate of perceived exertion did not show significant differences between conditions. The present findings partially support the claims of freediving athletes who adopt the DRY warm-up, since it induces a more pronounced diving response, avoiding higher lactate levels and reducing the dive time of a dynamic apnea.

Vitali, L., Raffi, M., Piras, A. (2022). Acute Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effects of Different Warm-Up Protocols on Dynamic Apnea. JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE, 21(2), 298-307 [10.52082/jssm.2022.298].

Acute Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effects of Different Warm-Up Protocols on Dynamic Apnea

Vitali, Luca;Raffi, Milena;Piras, Alessandro
2022

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute physiological response to different warm-up protocols on the dynamic apnea performance. The traditional approach, including a series of short-mid dives in water (WET warm-up), was compared to a more recent strategy, consisting in exercises performed outside the water (DRY warm-up). Nine athletes were tested in two different sessions, in which the only difference was the warm-up executed before 75m of dynamic apnea. Heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, hemoglobin, blood lactate and the rate of perceived exertion were recorded and analyzed. With respect to WET condition, DRY showed lower lactate level before the dive (1.93 vs. 2.60 mmol/L, p = 0.006), higher autonomic indices and lower heart rate during the subsequent dynamic apnea. A significant correlation between lactate produced during WET with the duration of the subsequent dynamic apnea, suggests that higher lactate levels could affect the dive performance (72 vs. 70 sec, p = 0.028). The hemoglobin concentration and the rate of perceived exertion did not show significant differences between conditions. The present findings partially support the claims of freediving athletes who adopt the DRY warm-up, since it induces a more pronounced diving response, avoiding higher lactate levels and reducing the dive time of a dynamic apnea.
2022
Vitali, L., Raffi, M., Piras, A. (2022). Acute Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effects of Different Warm-Up Protocols on Dynamic Apnea. JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE, 21(2), 298-307 [10.52082/jssm.2022.298].
Vitali, Luca; Raffi, Milena; Piras, Alessandro
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/890910
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