We present the neuroimaging findings of three cases of non-ketotic hyperglycaemia (NKH) associated with focal seizures and a review of the previous cases and series reported in literature. NKH is a cause of seizures in both long-standing and newly diagnosed diabetic patients. They are usually focal motor seizures, rarely with a secondary generalisation. This condition does not fully respond to anticonvulsant therapy if glycaemic levels are not normalised. Of interest, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NKH could be different from those observed during other kinds of seizures. Indeed, seizure-related MRI abnormalities mainly involve the cortical grey matter, while NKH-related seizures usually appear as reversible subcortical T2/fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) hypointensity. This latter abnormality shows a good spatial correlation with the area of the ictal focus on electroencephalogram and could be associated with other more common post-ictal MRI changes (cortical grey matter T2/FLAIR hyperintensity, cortical or leptomeningeal enhancement). Although these abnormalities tend to be transient, a focal volume loss or gliosis can result on follow-up imaging. Our cases confirm T2/FLAIR subcortical hypointensity as a main neuroradiological hallmark of NKH-induced seizures.

Magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with non-ketotic hyperglycaemia and focal seizures

De Martino S. R. M.;Spinardi L.;Cirillo L.
2020

Abstract

We present the neuroimaging findings of three cases of non-ketotic hyperglycaemia (NKH) associated with focal seizures and a review of the previous cases and series reported in literature. NKH is a cause of seizures in both long-standing and newly diagnosed diabetic patients. They are usually focal motor seizures, rarely with a secondary generalisation. This condition does not fully respond to anticonvulsant therapy if glycaemic levels are not normalised. Of interest, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NKH could be different from those observed during other kinds of seizures. Indeed, seizure-related MRI abnormalities mainly involve the cortical grey matter, while NKH-related seizures usually appear as reversible subcortical T2/fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) hypointensity. This latter abnormality shows a good spatial correlation with the area of the ictal focus on electroencephalogram and could be associated with other more common post-ictal MRI changes (cortical grey matter T2/FLAIR hyperintensity, cortical or leptomeningeal enhancement). Although these abnormalities tend to be transient, a focal volume loss or gliosis can result on follow-up imaging. Our cases confirm T2/FLAIR subcortical hypointensity as a main neuroradiological hallmark of NKH-induced seizures.
De Martino S.R.M.; Toni F.; Spinardi L.; Cirillo L.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/882584
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