Background: Brain stroke is a rare, life-threatening condition associated with pituitary apoplexy (PA), resulting from direct arterial occlusion due to mechanical compression secondary to the sudden enlargement of the pituitary adenoma, or to vessel vasospasm, induced by tumor hemorrhage. Case report: We report the case of a 64-year-old woman with PA complicated by bilateral anterior circulation stroke due to critical stenosis of both anterior cerebral arteries (ACA). Despite the quick surgical decompression and consequent blood flow restoration, the neurological conditions of the patient did not improve and she died 18 days later. Ten other cases of anterior circulation stroke due to PA were retrieved in a systematic review of literature. Clinical and neuroradiological features of these patients and treatment outcome were assessed to suggest the most proper management. Conclusion: The onset of neurological symptoms suggestive for brain stroke in patients with PA requires performing an emergency Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), including Diffusion-weighted and angiographic MR-sequences. The role of surgery in these cases is debated, however, transsphenoidal adenomectomy would permit us to decompress the ACA and restore blood flow in their territories. Although the prognosis of PA-induced anterior circulation stroke is generally poor, a timely diagnosis and treatment would be paramount for improving patient outcome.

Bilateral antererior circulation stroke: A rare but threatening consequence of pituitary apoplexy. Case report and systematic literature review

Zoli M.;Guaraldi F.;Rustici A.;Cirillo L.;Asioli S.;Mazzatenta D.
2022

Abstract

Background: Brain stroke is a rare, life-threatening condition associated with pituitary apoplexy (PA), resulting from direct arterial occlusion due to mechanical compression secondary to the sudden enlargement of the pituitary adenoma, or to vessel vasospasm, induced by tumor hemorrhage. Case report: We report the case of a 64-year-old woman with PA complicated by bilateral anterior circulation stroke due to critical stenosis of both anterior cerebral arteries (ACA). Despite the quick surgical decompression and consequent blood flow restoration, the neurological conditions of the patient did not improve and she died 18 days later. Ten other cases of anterior circulation stroke due to PA were retrieved in a systematic review of literature. Clinical and neuroradiological features of these patients and treatment outcome were assessed to suggest the most proper management. Conclusion: The onset of neurological symptoms suggestive for brain stroke in patients with PA requires performing an emergency Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), including Diffusion-weighted and angiographic MR-sequences. The role of surgery in these cases is debated, however, transsphenoidal adenomectomy would permit us to decompress the ACA and restore blood flow in their territories. Although the prognosis of PA-induced anterior circulation stroke is generally poor, a timely diagnosis and treatment would be paramount for improving patient outcome.
Zoli M.; Guaraldi F.; Rustici A.; Cirillo L.; Asioli S.; Mazzatenta D.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/882578
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