In 2020 North Italy suffered the SARS-CoV-2-related pandemic with a high number of deaths and hospitalization. The effect of atmospheric parameters on the amount of hospital admissions (temperature, solar radiation, particulate matter, relative humidity and wind speed) is studied through about 8 months (May–December). Two periods are considered depending on different conditions: a) low incidence of COVID-19 and very few regulations concerning personal mobility and protection (“free/summer period”); b) increasing incidence of disease, social restrictions and use of personal protections (“confined/autumn period”). The “hospitalized people in medical area wards/100000 residents” was used as a reliable measure of COVID-19 spreading and load on the sanitary system. We developed a chemometric approach (multiple linear regression analysis) using the daily incidence of hospitalizations as a function of the single independent variables and of their products (interactions). Eight administrative domains were considered (altogether 26 million inhabitants) to account for relatively homogeneous territorial and social conditions. The obtained models very significantly match the daily variation of hospitalizations, during the two periods. Under the confined/autumn period, the effect of non-pharmacologic measures (social distances, personal protection, etc.) possibly attenuates the virus diffusion despite environmental factors. On the contrary, in the free/summer conditions the effects of atmospheric parameters are very significant through all the areas. Particulate matter matches the growth of hospitalizations in areas with low chronic particulate pollution. Fewer hospitalizations strongly correspond to higher temperature and solar radiation. Relative humidity plays the same role, but with a lesser extent. The interaction between solar radiation and high temperature is also highly significant and represents surprising evidence. The solar radiation alone and combined with high temperature exert an anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect, via both the direct inactivation of virions and the stimulation of vitamin D synthesis, improving immune system function.

Effects of environmental parameters and their interactions on the spreading of SARS-CoV-2 in North Italy under different social restrictions. A new approach based on multivariate analysis

Tateo F.;De Biase D.;Lari F.;Melucci D.
2022

Abstract

In 2020 North Italy suffered the SARS-CoV-2-related pandemic with a high number of deaths and hospitalization. The effect of atmospheric parameters on the amount of hospital admissions (temperature, solar radiation, particulate matter, relative humidity and wind speed) is studied through about 8 months (May–December). Two periods are considered depending on different conditions: a) low incidence of COVID-19 and very few regulations concerning personal mobility and protection (“free/summer period”); b) increasing incidence of disease, social restrictions and use of personal protections (“confined/autumn period”). The “hospitalized people in medical area wards/100000 residents” was used as a reliable measure of COVID-19 spreading and load on the sanitary system. We developed a chemometric approach (multiple linear regression analysis) using the daily incidence of hospitalizations as a function of the single independent variables and of their products (interactions). Eight administrative domains were considered (altogether 26 million inhabitants) to account for relatively homogeneous territorial and social conditions. The obtained models very significantly match the daily variation of hospitalizations, during the two periods. Under the confined/autumn period, the effect of non-pharmacologic measures (social distances, personal protection, etc.) possibly attenuates the virus diffusion despite environmental factors. On the contrary, in the free/summer conditions the effects of atmospheric parameters are very significant through all the areas. Particulate matter matches the growth of hospitalizations in areas with low chronic particulate pollution. Fewer hospitalizations strongly correspond to higher temperature and solar radiation. Relative humidity plays the same role, but with a lesser extent. The interaction between solar radiation and high temperature is also highly significant and represents surprising evidence. The solar radiation alone and combined with high temperature exert an anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect, via both the direct inactivation of virions and the stimulation of vitamin D synthesis, improving immune system function.
Tateo F.; Fiorino S.; Peruzzo L.; Zippi M.; De Biase D.; Lari F.; Melucci D.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/879181
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