Introduction: Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive malignancies comprising intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and ampulla of Vater cancer. Although recent years have witnessed the emergence of novel treatment targets, medical therapy remains a compelling challenge in these hepatobiliary malignancies. In order to provide more effective treatment options, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are currently under investigation in advanced BTC, with controversial results reported so far. Areas covered: This review provides an overview regarding current scenario of ICIs and immune-based combinations in advanced BTC, where several novel treatments are currently being developed, some of which have suggested interesting efficacy in recent clinical trials. In addition, we provide a report of ongoing Phase I to III clinical trials assessing ICIs and new immunotherapeutic strategies for advanced BTC. Expert opinion: Although immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment landscape of several hematological and solid tumors, the role of ICIs and immune-based combinations in advanced BTC is still unclear. Despite ICI monotherapy has reported limited efficacy in this setting, the durable responses observed in sporadic cases suggest that testing patients for MMR, MSI, TMB, and PD-L1 expression is warranted. Results of currently ongoing trials are highly awaited.

Rizzo A., Ricci A.D., Brandi G. (2021). Recent advances of immunotherapy for biliary tract cancer. EXPERT REVIEW OF GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY, 15(5), 527-536 [10.1080/17474124.2021.1853527].

Recent advances of immunotherapy for biliary tract cancer

Rizzo A.;Ricci A. D.;Brandi G.
2021

Abstract

Introduction: Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive malignancies comprising intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and ampulla of Vater cancer. Although recent years have witnessed the emergence of novel treatment targets, medical therapy remains a compelling challenge in these hepatobiliary malignancies. In order to provide more effective treatment options, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are currently under investigation in advanced BTC, with controversial results reported so far. Areas covered: This review provides an overview regarding current scenario of ICIs and immune-based combinations in advanced BTC, where several novel treatments are currently being developed, some of which have suggested interesting efficacy in recent clinical trials. In addition, we provide a report of ongoing Phase I to III clinical trials assessing ICIs and new immunotherapeutic strategies for advanced BTC. Expert opinion: Although immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment landscape of several hematological and solid tumors, the role of ICIs and immune-based combinations in advanced BTC is still unclear. Despite ICI monotherapy has reported limited efficacy in this setting, the durable responses observed in sporadic cases suggest that testing patients for MMR, MSI, TMB, and PD-L1 expression is warranted. Results of currently ongoing trials are highly awaited.
2021
Rizzo A., Ricci A.D., Brandi G. (2021). Recent advances of immunotherapy for biliary tract cancer. EXPERT REVIEW OF GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY, 15(5), 527-536 [10.1080/17474124.2021.1853527].
Rizzo A.; Ricci A.D.; Brandi G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/876400
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