Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare, aggressive disease with poor overall survival. In advanced cases, surgery is often not possible or fails; in addition, there is a lack of effective and specific therapies. Multidisciplinary approaches and advanced technologies have improved the knowledge of CCA molecular pathogenesis, highlighting its extreme heterogeneity and high frequency of genetic and molecular aberrations. Effective preclinical models, therefore, should be based on a comparable level of complexity. In the past years, there has been a consistent increase in the number of available CCA models. The exploitation of even more complex CCA models is rising. Examples are the use of CRISPR/Cas9 or stabilized organoids for in vitro studies, as well as patient-derived xenografts or transgenic mouse models for in vivo applications. Here, we examine the available preclinical CCA models exploited to investigate: (i) carcinogenesis processes from initiation to progression; and (ii) tools for personalized therapy and innovative therapeutic approaches, including chemotherapy and immune/targeted therapies. For each model, we describe the potential applications, highlighting both its advantages and limits.

Evolution of the experimental models of cholangiocarcinoma

Tavolari S.;Brandi G.;Aglietta M.
2020

Abstract

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare, aggressive disease with poor overall survival. In advanced cases, surgery is often not possible or fails; in addition, there is a lack of effective and specific therapies. Multidisciplinary approaches and advanced technologies have improved the knowledge of CCA molecular pathogenesis, highlighting its extreme heterogeneity and high frequency of genetic and molecular aberrations. Effective preclinical models, therefore, should be based on a comparable level of complexity. In the past years, there has been a consistent increase in the number of available CCA models. The exploitation of even more complex CCA models is rising. Examples are the use of CRISPR/Cas9 or stabilized organoids for in vitro studies, as well as patient-derived xenografts or transgenic mouse models for in vivo applications. Here, we examine the available preclinical CCA models exploited to investigate: (i) carcinogenesis processes from initiation to progression; and (ii) tools for personalized therapy and innovative therapeutic approaches, including chemotherapy and immune/targeted therapies. For each model, we describe the potential applications, highlighting both its advantages and limits.
Massa A.; Varamo C.; Vita F.; Tavolari S.; Peraldo-Neia C.; Brandi G.; Rizzo A.; Cavalloni G.; Aglietta M.
File in questo prodotto:
Eventuali allegati, non sono esposti

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/876043
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 44
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 41
social impact