Background: Psychiatric disorders are complex, multifactorial illnesses with a demonstrated biological component in their etiopathogenesis. Epigenetic modifications, through the modulation of DNA methylation, histone modifications and RNA interference, tune tissue-specific gene expression patterns and play a relevant role in the etiology of psychiatric illnesses. Objective: This review aims to discuss the epigenetic mechanisms involved in psychiatric disorders, their modulation by environmental factors and their interactions with genetic variants, in order to provide a comprehensive picture of their mutual crosstalk. Methods: In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, systematic searches of Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library were conducted. Results: Exposure to environmental factors, such as poor socio-economic status, obstetric complications, migration, and early life stressors, may lead to stable changes in gene expression and neural circuit function, playing a role in the risk of psychiatric diseases. The most replicated genes involved by studies using different techniques are discussed. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions and they interact with genetic variants in determining the risk of psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: An increasing amount of evidence suggests that epigenetics plays a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. New therapeutic approaches may work by reversing detrimental epigenetic changes that occurred during the lifespan.

Epigenetic basis of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review / Panariello, Fabio; Fanelli, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Chiara; Atti, Anna Rita; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro. - In: CNS & NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. DRUG TARGETS. - ISSN 1871-5273. - STAMPA. - 21:4(2022), pp. 302-315. [10.2174/1871527320666210825101915]

Epigenetic basis of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review

Panariello, Fabio;Fanelli, Giuseppe;Fabbri, Chiara;Atti, Anna Rita;De Ronchi, Diana;Serretti, Alessandro
2022

Abstract

Background: Psychiatric disorders are complex, multifactorial illnesses with a demonstrated biological component in their etiopathogenesis. Epigenetic modifications, through the modulation of DNA methylation, histone modifications and RNA interference, tune tissue-specific gene expression patterns and play a relevant role in the etiology of psychiatric illnesses. Objective: This review aims to discuss the epigenetic mechanisms involved in psychiatric disorders, their modulation by environmental factors and their interactions with genetic variants, in order to provide a comprehensive picture of their mutual crosstalk. Methods: In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, systematic searches of Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library were conducted. Results: Exposure to environmental factors, such as poor socio-economic status, obstetric complications, migration, and early life stressors, may lead to stable changes in gene expression and neural circuit function, playing a role in the risk of psychiatric diseases. The most replicated genes involved by studies using different techniques are discussed. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions and they interact with genetic variants in determining the risk of psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: An increasing amount of evidence suggests that epigenetics plays a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. New therapeutic approaches may work by reversing detrimental epigenetic changes that occurred during the lifespan.
2022
Epigenetic basis of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review / Panariello, Fabio; Fanelli, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Chiara; Atti, Anna Rita; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro. - In: CNS & NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. DRUG TARGETS. - ISSN 1871-5273. - STAMPA. - 21:4(2022), pp. 302-315. [10.2174/1871527320666210825101915]
Panariello, Fabio; Fanelli, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Chiara; Atti, Anna Rita; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/874784
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