The ejection of gas out of the disc in late-type galaxies is related to star formation and is mainly due to the explosion of Type II supernovae (SN II). In a previous paper, we considered the evolution of a single Galactic fountain, that is, a fountain powered by a single SN cluster. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we studied in detail the fountain flow and its dependence with several factors, such as the Galactic rotation, the distance to the Galactic centre and the presence of a hot gaseous halo. As a natural followup, this paper investigates the dynamical evolution of multiple generations of fountains generated by ∼100 OB associations. We have considered the observed size–frequency distribution of young stellar clusters within the Galaxy in order to appropriately fuel the multiple fountains in our simulations. Most of the results of the previous paper have been confirmed, like for example the formation of intermediate velocity clouds above the disc by the multiple fountains. Also, this work confirms the localized nature of the fountain flows: the freshly ejected metals tend to fall back close to the same Galactocentric region where they are delivered. Therefore, the fountains do not change significantly the radial profile of the disc chemical abundance. The multiple fountain simulations also allowed us to consistently calculate the feedback of the star formation on the halo gas. We found that the hot gas gains about 10 per cent of all the SN II energy produced in the disc. Thus, the SN feedback more than compensate for the halo radiative losses and allow for a quasi steady-state disc–halo circulation to exist. Finally, we have also considered the possibility of mass infall from the intergalactic medium and its interaction with the clouds that are formed by the fountains. Though our simulations are not suitable to reproduce the slow rotational pattern that is typically observed in the haloes around the disc galaxies, they indicate that the presence of an external gas infall may help to slow down the rotation of the gas in the clouds and thus the amount of angular momentum that they transfer to the coronal gas, as previously suggested in the literature.

Hydrodynamical simulations of Galactic fountains - II. Evolution of multiple fountains

MELIOLI, CLAUDIO;BRIGHENTI, FABRIZIO;
2009

Abstract

The ejection of gas out of the disc in late-type galaxies is related to star formation and is mainly due to the explosion of Type II supernovae (SN II). In a previous paper, we considered the evolution of a single Galactic fountain, that is, a fountain powered by a single SN cluster. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we studied in detail the fountain flow and its dependence with several factors, such as the Galactic rotation, the distance to the Galactic centre and the presence of a hot gaseous halo. As a natural followup, this paper investigates the dynamical evolution of multiple generations of fountains generated by ∼100 OB associations. We have considered the observed size–frequency distribution of young stellar clusters within the Galaxy in order to appropriately fuel the multiple fountains in our simulations. Most of the results of the previous paper have been confirmed, like for example the formation of intermediate velocity clouds above the disc by the multiple fountains. Also, this work confirms the localized nature of the fountain flows: the freshly ejected metals tend to fall back close to the same Galactocentric region where they are delivered. Therefore, the fountains do not change significantly the radial profile of the disc chemical abundance. The multiple fountain simulations also allowed us to consistently calculate the feedback of the star formation on the halo gas. We found that the hot gas gains about 10 per cent of all the SN II energy produced in the disc. Thus, the SN feedback more than compensate for the halo radiative losses and allow for a quasi steady-state disc–halo circulation to exist. Finally, we have also considered the possibility of mass infall from the intergalactic medium and its interaction with the clouds that are formed by the fountains. Though our simulations are not suitable to reproduce the slow rotational pattern that is typically observed in the haloes around the disc galaxies, they indicate that the presence of an external gas infall may help to slow down the rotation of the gas in the clouds and thus the amount of angular momentum that they transfer to the coronal gas, as previously suggested in the literature.
Melioli C.; Brighenti F.; D'Ercole A.; de Gouveia Dal Pino E.M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/87242
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