Diffuse low-grade gliomas account for approximately 20% of all primary brain tumors, they arise from glial cells and show infiltrative growth without histological features of malignancy. Mutations of the IDH1 and IDH2 genes constitute a reliable molecular signature of low-grade gliomas and are the earliest driver mutations occurring during gliomagenesis, representing a relevant biomarker with diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive value. IDH mutations induce a neomorphic enzyme that converts alpha-ketoglutarate to the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate, which leads to widespread effects on cellular epigenetics and metabolism. Currently, there are no approved molecularly targeted therapies and the standard treatment for low-grade gliomas consists of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, with rising concern about treatment-related toxicities. Targeting D-2-hydroxyglutarate is considered a novel attractive therapeutic approach for low-grade gliomas and the insights from clinical trials suggest that mutant-selective IDH inhibitors are the ideal candidates, with a favorable benefit/risk ratio. A pivotal question is whether blocking IDH neomorphic activity may activate alternative oncogenetic pathways, inducing acquired resistance to IDH inhibitors. Based on this rationale, combination therapies to enhance the antitumor activity of IDH inhibitors and approaches aimed at exploiting, rather than inhibiting, the metabolism of IDH-mutant cancer cells, such as poly (adenosine 5 '-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, are emerging from preclinical research and clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the pivotal role of IDH mutations in gliomagenesis and the complex interactions between the genomic and epigenetic landscapes, providing an overview of how, in the last decade, therapeutic approaches for low-grade gliomas have evolved.

IDH Inhibitors and Beyond: The Cornerstone of Targeted Glioma Treatment

Lidia Gatto;Enrico Franceschi;Vincenzo Di Nunno;Raffaele Lodi;
2021

Abstract

Diffuse low-grade gliomas account for approximately 20% of all primary brain tumors, they arise from glial cells and show infiltrative growth without histological features of malignancy. Mutations of the IDH1 and IDH2 genes constitute a reliable molecular signature of low-grade gliomas and are the earliest driver mutations occurring during gliomagenesis, representing a relevant biomarker with diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive value. IDH mutations induce a neomorphic enzyme that converts alpha-ketoglutarate to the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate, which leads to widespread effects on cellular epigenetics and metabolism. Currently, there are no approved molecularly targeted therapies and the standard treatment for low-grade gliomas consists of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, with rising concern about treatment-related toxicities. Targeting D-2-hydroxyglutarate is considered a novel attractive therapeutic approach for low-grade gliomas and the insights from clinical trials suggest that mutant-selective IDH inhibitors are the ideal candidates, with a favorable benefit/risk ratio. A pivotal question is whether blocking IDH neomorphic activity may activate alternative oncogenetic pathways, inducing acquired resistance to IDH inhibitors. Based on this rationale, combination therapies to enhance the antitumor activity of IDH inhibitors and approaches aimed at exploiting, rather than inhibiting, the metabolism of IDH-mutant cancer cells, such as poly (adenosine 5 '-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, are emerging from preclinical research and clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the pivotal role of IDH mutations in gliomagenesis and the complex interactions between the genomic and epigenetic landscapes, providing an overview of how, in the last decade, therapeutic approaches for low-grade gliomas have evolved.
Lidia Gatto, Enrico Franceschi, Alicia Tosoni, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Ilaria Maggio, Raffaele Lodi , Alba Ariela Brandes
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/866692
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