Introduction: The field of cancer immunotherapy has achieved great advancements through the application of genetically engineered T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR), that have shown exciting success in eradicating hematologic malignancies and have proved to be safe with promising early signs of antitumoral activity in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). Areas covered: We discuss the use of CAR T cells in GBM, focusing on limitations and obstacles to advancement, mostly related to toxicities, hostile tumor microenvironment, limited CAR T cells infiltration and persistence, target antigen loss/heterogeneity and inadequate trafficking. Furthermore, we introduce the refined strategies aimed at strengthening CAR T activity and offer insights in to novel immunotherapeutic approaches, such as the potential use of CAR NK or CAR M to optimize anti-tumor effects for GBM management. Expert opinion: With the progressive wide use of CAR T cell therapy, significant challenges in treating solid tumors, including central nervous system (CNS) tumors, are emerging, highlighting early disease relapse and cancer cell resistance issues, owing to hostile immunosuppressive microenvironment and tumor antigen heterogeneity. In addition to CAR T cells, there is great interest in utilizing other types of CAR-based therapies, such as CAR natural killer (CAR NK) or CAR macrophages (CAR M) cells for CNS tumors.

Engineered CAR-T and novel CAR-based therapies to fight the immune evasion of glioblastoma: gutta cavat lapidem

Lidia Gatto;Enrico Franceschi;Vincenzo Di Nunno;Raffaele Lodi;
2021

Abstract

Introduction: The field of cancer immunotherapy has achieved great advancements through the application of genetically engineered T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR), that have shown exciting success in eradicating hematologic malignancies and have proved to be safe with promising early signs of antitumoral activity in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). Areas covered: We discuss the use of CAR T cells in GBM, focusing on limitations and obstacles to advancement, mostly related to toxicities, hostile tumor microenvironment, limited CAR T cells infiltration and persistence, target antigen loss/heterogeneity and inadequate trafficking. Furthermore, we introduce the refined strategies aimed at strengthening CAR T activity and offer insights in to novel immunotherapeutic approaches, such as the potential use of CAR NK or CAR M to optimize anti-tumor effects for GBM management. Expert opinion: With the progressive wide use of CAR T cell therapy, significant challenges in treating solid tumors, including central nervous system (CNS) tumors, are emerging, highlighting early disease relapse and cancer cell resistance issues, owing to hostile immunosuppressive microenvironment and tumor antigen heterogeneity. In addition to CAR T cells, there is great interest in utilizing other types of CAR-based therapies, such as CAR natural killer (CAR NK) or CAR macrophages (CAR M) cells for CNS tumors.
Lidia Gatto , Enrico Franceschi , Vincenzo Di Nunno , Ilaria Maggio , Raffaele Lodi , Alba Ariela Brandes
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/864838
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