Unhealthy behaviours, including diet and physical activity, coupled with genetic predis-position, drive type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurrence and severity; the present review aims to summarise the most recent nutritional approaches in T2D, outlining unmet needs. Guidelines consistently suggest reducing energy intake to counteract the obesity epidemic, frequently resulting in sarcopenic obesity, a condition associated with poorer metabolic control and cardiovascular disease. Various dietary approaches have been proposed with largely similar results, with a preference for the Mediterranean diet and the best practice being the diet that patients feel confident of maintaining in the long term based on individual preferences. Patient adherence is indeed the pivotal factor for weight loss and long-term maintenance, requiring intensive lifestyle intervention. The consumption of nutritional supplements continues to increase even if international societies do not support their systematic use. Inositols and vitamin D supplementation, as well as micronutrients (zinc, chromium, magnesium) and pre/probiotics, result in modest improvement in insulin sensitivity, but their use is not systematically suggested. To reach the desired goals, patients should be actively involved in the collaborative development of a personalised meal plan associated with habitual physical activ-ity, aiming at normal body weight and metabolic control.

Nutrition in patients with type 2 diabetes: Present knowledge and remaining challenges

Petroni M. L.;Brodosi L.;Marchignoli F.;Sasdelli A. S.;Caraceni P.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Marchesini G.;Ravaioli F.
2021

Abstract

Unhealthy behaviours, including diet and physical activity, coupled with genetic predis-position, drive type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurrence and severity; the present review aims to summarise the most recent nutritional approaches in T2D, outlining unmet needs. Guidelines consistently suggest reducing energy intake to counteract the obesity epidemic, frequently resulting in sarcopenic obesity, a condition associated with poorer metabolic control and cardiovascular disease. Various dietary approaches have been proposed with largely similar results, with a preference for the Mediterranean diet and the best practice being the diet that patients feel confident of maintaining in the long term based on individual preferences. Patient adherence is indeed the pivotal factor for weight loss and long-term maintenance, requiring intensive lifestyle intervention. The consumption of nutritional supplements continues to increase even if international societies do not support their systematic use. Inositols and vitamin D supplementation, as well as micronutrients (zinc, chromium, magnesium) and pre/probiotics, result in modest improvement in insulin sensitivity, but their use is not systematically suggested. To reach the desired goals, patients should be actively involved in the collaborative development of a personalised meal plan associated with habitual physical activ-ity, aiming at normal body weight and metabolic control.
Petroni M.L.; Brodosi L.; Marchignoli F.; Sasdelli A.S.; Caraceni P.; Marchesini G.; Ravaioli F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/863533
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