Radio relics are the manifestation of electrons presumably being shock (re-)accelerated to high energies in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. However, estimates of the shocks' strength yield different results when measured with radio or X-ray observations. In general, Mach numbers obtained from radio observations are larger than the corresponding X-ray measurements. In this work, we investigate this Mach number discrepancy. For this purpose, we used the cosmological code ENZO to simulate a sample of galaxy clusters that host bright radio relics. For each relic, we computed the radio Mach number from the integrated radio spectrum and the X-ray Mach number from the X-ray surface brightness and temperature jumps. Our analysis suggests that the differences in the Mach number estimates follow from the way in which different observables are related to different parts of the underlying Mach number distribution: radio observations are more sensistive to the high Mach numbers present only in a small fraction of a shock's surface, while X-ray measurements reflect the average of the Mach number distribution. Moreover, X-ray measurements are very sensitive to the relic's orientation. If the same relic is observed from different sides, the measured X-ray Mach number varies significantly. On the other hand, the radio measurements are more robust, as they are unaffected by the relic's orientation.

Exploring the spectral properties of radio relics – I: integrated spectral index and Mach number

Wittor, D
;
Vazza, F
Funding Acquisition
;
Rajpurohit, K;Hoeft, M;
2021

Abstract

Radio relics are the manifestation of electrons presumably being shock (re-)accelerated to high energies in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. However, estimates of the shocks' strength yield different results when measured with radio or X-ray observations. In general, Mach numbers obtained from radio observations are larger than the corresponding X-ray measurements. In this work, we investigate this Mach number discrepancy. For this purpose, we used the cosmological code ENZO to simulate a sample of galaxy clusters that host bright radio relics. For each relic, we computed the radio Mach number from the integrated radio spectrum and the X-ray Mach number from the X-ray surface brightness and temperature jumps. Our analysis suggests that the differences in the Mach number estimates follow from the way in which different observables are related to different parts of the underlying Mach number distribution: radio observations are more sensistive to the high Mach numbers present only in a small fraction of a shock's surface, while X-ray measurements reflect the average of the Mach number distribution. Moreover, X-ray measurements are very sensitive to the relic's orientation. If the same relic is observed from different sides, the measured X-ray Mach number varies significantly. On the other hand, the radio measurements are more robust, as they are unaffected by the relic's orientation.
Wittor, D; Ettori, S; Vazza, F; Rajpurohit, K; Hoeft, M; Domínguez-Fernández, P
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
stab1735.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipo: Versione (PDF) editoriale
Licenza: Licenza per accesso libero gratuito
Dimensione 7.29 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
7.29 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/862863
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 11
social impact