DLX5 and DLX6 are two closely related transcription factors involved in brain development and in GABAergic differentiation. The DLX5/6 locus is regulated by FoxP2, a gene involved in language evolution and has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and mental retardation. Targeted inactivation of Dlx5/6 in mouse GABAergic neurons (Dlx5/6VgatCre mice) results in behavioral and metabolic phenotypes notably increasing lifespan by 33%. Here, we show that Dlx5/6VgatCre mice present a hyper-vocalization and hyper-socialization phenotype. While only 7% of control mice emitted more than 700 vocalizations/10 min, 30% and 56% of heterozygous or homozygous Dlx5/6VgatCre mice emitted more than 700 and up to 1,400 calls/10 min with a higher proportion of complex and modulated calls. Hyper-vocalizing animals were more sociable: the time spent in dynamic interactions with an unknown visitor was more than doubled compared to low-vocalizing individuals. The characters affected by Dlx5/6 in the mouse (sociability, vocalization, skull, and brain shape..) overlap those affected in the "domestication syndrome". We therefore explored the possibility that DLX5/6 played a role in human evolution and "self-domestication"comparing DLX5/6 genomic regions from Neanderthal and modern humans. We identified an introgressed Neanderthal haplotype (DLX5/6-N-Haplotype) present in 12.6% of European individuals that covers DLX5/6 coding and regulatory sequences. The DLX5/6-N-Haplotype includes the binding site for GTF2I, a gene associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome, a hyper-sociability and hyper-vocalization neurodevelopmental disorder. The DLX5/6-N-Haplotype is significantly underrepresented in semi-supercentenarians (>105 years of age), a well-established human model of healthy aging and longevity, suggesting their involvement in the coevolution of longevity, sociability, and speech.

DLX5/6 GABAergic Expression Affects Social Vocalization: Implications for Human Evolution

Giuliani C.
Conceptualization
;
Iannuzzi V.
Formal Analysis
;
Garagnani P.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Franceschi C.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2021

Abstract

DLX5 and DLX6 are two closely related transcription factors involved in brain development and in GABAergic differentiation. The DLX5/6 locus is regulated by FoxP2, a gene involved in language evolution and has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and mental retardation. Targeted inactivation of Dlx5/6 in mouse GABAergic neurons (Dlx5/6VgatCre mice) results in behavioral and metabolic phenotypes notably increasing lifespan by 33%. Here, we show that Dlx5/6VgatCre mice present a hyper-vocalization and hyper-socialization phenotype. While only 7% of control mice emitted more than 700 vocalizations/10 min, 30% and 56% of heterozygous or homozygous Dlx5/6VgatCre mice emitted more than 700 and up to 1,400 calls/10 min with a higher proportion of complex and modulated calls. Hyper-vocalizing animals were more sociable: the time spent in dynamic interactions with an unknown visitor was more than doubled compared to low-vocalizing individuals. The characters affected by Dlx5/6 in the mouse (sociability, vocalization, skull, and brain shape..) overlap those affected in the "domestication syndrome". We therefore explored the possibility that DLX5/6 played a role in human evolution and "self-domestication"comparing DLX5/6 genomic regions from Neanderthal and modern humans. We identified an introgressed Neanderthal haplotype (DLX5/6-N-Haplotype) present in 12.6% of European individuals that covers DLX5/6 coding and regulatory sequences. The DLX5/6-N-Haplotype includes the binding site for GTF2I, a gene associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome, a hyper-sociability and hyper-vocalization neurodevelopmental disorder. The DLX5/6-N-Haplotype is significantly underrepresented in semi-supercentenarians (>105 years of age), a well-established human model of healthy aging and longevity, suggesting their involvement in the coevolution of longevity, sociability, and speech.
Levi G.; De Lombares C.; Giuliani C.; Iannuzzi V.; Aouci R.; Garagnani P.; Franceschi C.; Grimaud-Herve D.; Narboux-Neme N.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/862122
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