Background: Recent evidences suggest that gallbladder drainage is the treatment of choice in elderly or high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis (AC). Despite better outcomes compared to other approaches, endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage (EUS-GBD) is burdened by high mortality. The aim of the study was to evaluate predictive factors for mortality in high-risk surgical patients who underwent EUS-GBD for AC. Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed. Electrocautery-enhanced lumen-apposing metal stents were used; all recorded variables were evaluated as potential predictive factors for mortality. Results: Thirty-four patients underwent EUS for suspected AC and 25 (44% male, age 78) were finally included. Technical, clinical success rate and adverse events rate were 92%, 88%, and 16%, respectively. 30-day and 1-year mortality were 12% and 32%. On univariate analysis, age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) (OR 20.8[4–68.2]), acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR 21.4[2.6–52.1]) and clinical success (OR 8.9[1.2–11.6]) were related to 30-day mortality. On multivariate analysis, CCI and AKI were independently related to long-term mortality. Kaplan–Meier curves showed an increased long-term mortality in patients with CCI > 6 (hazard ratio 7.6[1.7–34.6]) and AKI (hazard ratio 11.3[1.4–91.5]). Conclusions: Severe comorbidities and AKI were independent predictive factors confirming of long-term mortality after EUS-GBD. Outcomes of EUS-GBD appear more influenced by patients’ conditions rather than by procedure success.
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