The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. MMPs are secreted in a latent form and activated by local and infiltrating cells. MMP-2 and -9 are the most studied in reproduction and have been detected in bovine, ovine, equine and human placenta. There is only one study on MMPs in the equine amniotic fluid (AF) reporting a decrease in the activity of MMP-2 in case of premature delivery. The aim of this study was focused on MMP-2 and -9 activity in AF collected at parturition from mares with normal or high-risk pregnancy. High-risk pregnancy was defined as a history of premature udder development/lactation, increase of combined thickness of the uterus and placenta, vulvar discharge and/or mare's systemic illness. The diagnosis of placental insufficiency was confirmed retrospectively after macroscopic and histopatologic examination of the placenta. AF was collected by needle puncture of the amnion within 5 min after its appearance through the vulva. The activity of MMP-2 and -9 was analyzed by in-gel zymography allowing the evaluation of both latent and active forms. Twenty mares with normal pregnancy (group 1) and 8 mares with high-risk pregnancy (group 2) were included. All mares in group 2 had a high-risk pregnancy with a diagnosis of placental insufficiency associated with placental villous hypoplasia, placentitis or placental edema. The bands relative to latent and active forms of MMP-2 were clearly visible in both groups and the activity of latent (P = 0.010) and active (P = 0.004) forms was lower in the AF samples of group 2. The band of the latent form of MMP-9 was visible in 17/20 samples of group 1, while it was completely absent in all samples of group 2. In contrast, the band of the active form was clearly visible and with a greater activity in AF samples of group 2 (P = 0.002). Placental dysfunction seems to induce a lower MMP-2 activity and a higher MMP-9 activity through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Because fetal pulmonary secretions are a likely source of gelatinases in AF during late gestation, the increased MMP-9 activity could be related to fetal distress. These data provide a starting point to better understand the role of MMPs in equine pregnancy, although it should be confirmed in a larger and more homogeneous population of mares with high-risk pregnancy.

Activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in amniotic fluid at parturition in mares with normal and high-risk pregnancy

Ellero N.;Lanci A.
;
Ferlizza E.;Andreani G.;Mariella J.;Isani G.;Castagnetti C.
2021

Abstract

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. MMPs are secreted in a latent form and activated by local and infiltrating cells. MMP-2 and -9 are the most studied in reproduction and have been detected in bovine, ovine, equine and human placenta. There is only one study on MMPs in the equine amniotic fluid (AF) reporting a decrease in the activity of MMP-2 in case of premature delivery. The aim of this study was focused on MMP-2 and -9 activity in AF collected at parturition from mares with normal or high-risk pregnancy. High-risk pregnancy was defined as a history of premature udder development/lactation, increase of combined thickness of the uterus and placenta, vulvar discharge and/or mare's systemic illness. The diagnosis of placental insufficiency was confirmed retrospectively after macroscopic and histopatologic examination of the placenta. AF was collected by needle puncture of the amnion within 5 min after its appearance through the vulva. The activity of MMP-2 and -9 was analyzed by in-gel zymography allowing the evaluation of both latent and active forms. Twenty mares with normal pregnancy (group 1) and 8 mares with high-risk pregnancy (group 2) were included. All mares in group 2 had a high-risk pregnancy with a diagnosis of placental insufficiency associated with placental villous hypoplasia, placentitis or placental edema. The bands relative to latent and active forms of MMP-2 were clearly visible in both groups and the activity of latent (P = 0.010) and active (P = 0.004) forms was lower in the AF samples of group 2. The band of the latent form of MMP-9 was visible in 17/20 samples of group 1, while it was completely absent in all samples of group 2. In contrast, the band of the active form was clearly visible and with a greater activity in AF samples of group 2 (P = 0.002). Placental dysfunction seems to induce a lower MMP-2 activity and a higher MMP-9 activity through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Because fetal pulmonary secretions are a likely source of gelatinases in AF during late gestation, the increased MMP-9 activity could be related to fetal distress. These data provide a starting point to better understand the role of MMPs in equine pregnancy, although it should be confirmed in a larger and more homogeneous population of mares with high-risk pregnancy.
Ellero N.; Lanci A.; Ferlizza E.; Andreani G.; Mariella J.; Isani G.; Castagnetti C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/861012
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