To evaluate two competitive strategies in patients undergoing resection of Small-intestine neuroendocrine neoplasms (Si-NEN): prophylactic cholecystectomy (PC) versus On-demand delayed (OC) cholecystectomy. None comparative studies are available. This is a retrospective study based on 247 Si-NENs candidates for the primary tumor resection. Patients were divided into two arms: PC and OC. Propensity score matching was performed, reporting the d value. The primary outcome was the rehospitalization rate for any cause. The secondary endpoints were: the rehospitalization rate for biliary stone disease (BSD), the mean number of rehospitalization (any cause and BSD), the complication rate (all and severe). A P value < 0.05 was considered significant, and the number needed to treat (NNT) < 10 was considered clinically relevant. Before matching, 52 (21.1%) were in the PC arm and 195 (78.9%) in the OC group. The two arms have a sub-optimal balance for age (d = 0.575), symptoms (d = 0.661), ENETS TNM stage (d = 0.661). After matching, we included 52 patients in PC and 104 in OC one. The two groups are well balanced (all d values < 0.5). The rehospitalization rate was similar in the two groups (36% vs 31; P = 0.594; NNT = 21). The rehospitalization rate for BSD was lower in the PC arm than OC one (0% vs 7%) without statistical significance (P = 0.096) and relevance (NNT = 15). The mean number of readmission (any cause and BSD) and the complication rate (all and severe) were similar. PC was not mandatory in patients having Si-NEN and candidates to the resection of primary tumors.
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