In recent years, natural compounds have emerged as inducers of non-canonical cell death. The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SFN) is a well-known natural anticancer compound with remarkable pro-apoptotic activity. Its ability to promote non-apoptotic cell-death mechanisms remains poorly investigated. This work aimed to explore the capacity of SFN to induce non-apoptotic cell death modalities. SFN was tested on different acute myeloid leukemia cell lines. The mechanism of cell death was investigated using a multi-parametric approach including fluorescence microscopy, western blotting, and flow cytometry. SFN triggered different cell-death modalities in a dose-dependent manner. At 25 μM, SFN induced caspase-dependent apoptosis and at 50 μM ferroptosis was induced through depletion of glutathione (GSH), decreased GSH peroxidase 4 protein expression, and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, necroptosis was not involved in SFN-induced cell death, as demonstrated by the non-significant increase in phosphorylation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 and phosphorylation of the necroptotic effector mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase. Taken together, our results suggest that the antileukemic activity of SFN can be mediated via both ferroptotic and apoptotic cell death modalities.

Discovery of Sulforaphane as an Inducer of Ferroptosis in U-937 Leukemia Cells: Expanding Its Anticancer Potential

Greco, Giulia;Catanzaro, Elena;Turrini, Eleonora;Fimognari, Carmela
2022

Abstract

In recent years, natural compounds have emerged as inducers of non-canonical cell death. The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SFN) is a well-known natural anticancer compound with remarkable pro-apoptotic activity. Its ability to promote non-apoptotic cell-death mechanisms remains poorly investigated. This work aimed to explore the capacity of SFN to induce non-apoptotic cell death modalities. SFN was tested on different acute myeloid leukemia cell lines. The mechanism of cell death was investigated using a multi-parametric approach including fluorescence microscopy, western blotting, and flow cytometry. SFN triggered different cell-death modalities in a dose-dependent manner. At 25 μM, SFN induced caspase-dependent apoptosis and at 50 μM ferroptosis was induced through depletion of glutathione (GSH), decreased GSH peroxidase 4 protein expression, and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, necroptosis was not involved in SFN-induced cell death, as demonstrated by the non-significant increase in phosphorylation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 and phosphorylation of the necroptotic effector mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase. Taken together, our results suggest that the antileukemic activity of SFN can be mediated via both ferroptotic and apoptotic cell death modalities.
Greco, Giulia; Schnekenburger, Michael; Catanzaro, Elena; Turrini, Eleonora; Ferrini, Fabio; Sestili, Piero; Diederich, Marc; Fimognari, Carmela
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/857692
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