Purpose: Cancer treatments with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are associated with a unique set of drug toxicities called immune-related adverse events (irAES). The aim of the present study was to describe the radiological manifestation of irAES detectable by CT. Method: Retrospective analysis of 284 patients treated with ICI for various types of advanced cancer; of them, 129 patients were selected, all having been treated with single-agent ICI, and all with a baseline CT scan and follow-up scans available at our Institute. CT examinations were reviewed by two radiologists involved in the study with a consensus reading. Imaging findings consistent with irAES were reported and correlated with clinical-laboratory data. Results: Immune-related adverse events were found in 25/129 (19.4 %) patients. No statistically significant differences were found in either the prevalence of irAES or in the time of onset of tumour type. Thoracic complications were detected in 14/25 (56.0 %) patients consisting in: 3 radiation recall pneumonia, 3 Transient Asymptomatic Pulmonary Opacities (TAPOs), 3 hypersensitivity pneumonia, 2 diffuse alveolar damage, 2 organizing pneumonia, 1 sarcoid-like reaction. In the remaining 11/25 (44.0 %), there were extra-pulmonary complications: 3 colitis, 4 cholecystitis, 2 pancreatitis and 2 cases of visceral ischemia. Conclusions: Radiologists should be aware of the wide spectrum of irAES as they could affect the outcome. Pneumonia is the most frequent irAES; however, the international classification for interstitial lung disease does not seem to be capable of describing all possible drug-related pulmonary toxicities. Additional findings included TAPOs, radiation recall pneumonia and sarcoid-like reaction.

Expected and non-expected immune-related adverse events detectable by CT

Ciccarese F.
Primo
;
Piccinino A.
Secondo
;
Brocchi S.;Balacchi C.;Dall'Olio F. G.;Massari F.;Rihawi K.;Paccapelo A.;Ardizzoni A.
Penultimo
;
Golfieri R.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Purpose: Cancer treatments with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are associated with a unique set of drug toxicities called immune-related adverse events (irAES). The aim of the present study was to describe the radiological manifestation of irAES detectable by CT. Method: Retrospective analysis of 284 patients treated with ICI for various types of advanced cancer; of them, 129 patients were selected, all having been treated with single-agent ICI, and all with a baseline CT scan and follow-up scans available at our Institute. CT examinations were reviewed by two radiologists involved in the study with a consensus reading. Imaging findings consistent with irAES were reported and correlated with clinical-laboratory data. Results: Immune-related adverse events were found in 25/129 (19.4 %) patients. No statistically significant differences were found in either the prevalence of irAES or in the time of onset of tumour type. Thoracic complications were detected in 14/25 (56.0 %) patients consisting in: 3 radiation recall pneumonia, 3 Transient Asymptomatic Pulmonary Opacities (TAPOs), 3 hypersensitivity pneumonia, 2 diffuse alveolar damage, 2 organizing pneumonia, 1 sarcoid-like reaction. In the remaining 11/25 (44.0 %), there were extra-pulmonary complications: 3 colitis, 4 cholecystitis, 2 pancreatitis and 2 cases of visceral ischemia. Conclusions: Radiologists should be aware of the wide spectrum of irAES as they could affect the outcome. Pneumonia is the most frequent irAES; however, the international classification for interstitial lung disease does not seem to be capable of describing all possible drug-related pulmonary toxicities. Additional findings included TAPOs, radiation recall pneumonia and sarcoid-like reaction.
Ciccarese F.; Piccinino A.; Brocchi S.; Balacchi C.; Dall'Olio F.G.; Massari F.; Rihawi K.; Paccapelo A.; Ardizzoni A.; Golfieri R.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/854023
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