Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Sorafenib is the first multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for HCC and it has represented the standard of care for advanced HCC for almost 10 years, offering a survival benefit when compared to placebo. However, this benefit is limited, showing rare objective responses and a disease control rate approaching 50-60%, with most patients experiencing disease progression at 6 months. These scant results dictate the urgent need for strategies to overcome both primary and acquired resistance. Herein we report several mechanisms supporting resistance to sorafenib in HCC patients, including activation of oncogenic pathways. Among these, the AKT/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role being at the crossroad of multiple driving events. Autophagy, multidrugresistant phenotype, hypoxia-related mechanisms and endoplasmic reticulum stress are gaining more and more relevance as crucial events driving the response to anticancer drugs, including sorafenib. Several HCC-specific miRNAs take part to the regulation of these cellular processes. Remarkably, molecularly targeted strategies able to overcome resistance in these settings have also been reported. So far, the vast majority of data has been derived from laboratory studies, which means the need for an extensive validation. Indeed, most of the possible drug associations displaying promising effects in improving sorafenib efficacy herein described derive from preclinical explorations. Notably, data obtained in animal models can be inconsistent with regard to the human disease for efficacy, safety, side effects, best formulation and pharmacokinetics. However, they represent the necessary preliminary step to improve the management of advanced HCC.

Elucidating the Molecular Basis of Sorafenib Resistance in HCC: Current Findings and Future Directions

Fornari, F;Giovannini, C;Piscaglia, F;Gramantieri, L
2021

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Sorafenib is the first multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for HCC and it has represented the standard of care for advanced HCC for almost 10 years, offering a survival benefit when compared to placebo. However, this benefit is limited, showing rare objective responses and a disease control rate approaching 50-60%, with most patients experiencing disease progression at 6 months. These scant results dictate the urgent need for strategies to overcome both primary and acquired resistance. Herein we report several mechanisms supporting resistance to sorafenib in HCC patients, including activation of oncogenic pathways. Among these, the AKT/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role being at the crossroad of multiple driving events. Autophagy, multidrugresistant phenotype, hypoxia-related mechanisms and endoplasmic reticulum stress are gaining more and more relevance as crucial events driving the response to anticancer drugs, including sorafenib. Several HCC-specific miRNAs take part to the regulation of these cellular processes. Remarkably, molecularly targeted strategies able to overcome resistance in these settings have also been reported. So far, the vast majority of data has been derived from laboratory studies, which means the need for an extensive validation. Indeed, most of the possible drug associations displaying promising effects in improving sorafenib efficacy herein described derive from preclinical explorations. Notably, data obtained in animal models can be inconsistent with regard to the human disease for efficacy, safety, side effects, best formulation and pharmacokinetics. However, they represent the necessary preliminary step to improve the management of advanced HCC.
2021
Fornari, F; Giovannini, C; Piscaglia, F; Gramantieri, L
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/851594
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