Purpose: Jacobsen syndrome (JS) is a rare form of genetic disorder that was recently classified as a syndromic immunodeficiency. Available detailed immunological data from JS patients are limited. Methods: Clinical and immunological presentation of twelve pediatric patients with JS by means of revision of clinical records, flow cytometry, real-time PCR, and lymphocyte functional testing were collected. Results: Recurrent infections were registered in 6/12 patients (50%), while bleeding episodes in 2/12 (16.7%). White blood cell and absolute lymphocyte counts were reduced in 8/12 (66.7%) and 7/12 (58.3%) patients, respectively. Absolute numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ T cells were reduced in 8/12 (66.7%) and 7/12 (58.3%), respectively. Of note, recent thymic emigrants (RTE) were reduced in all tested patients (9/9), with T-cell receptor excision circle analysis (TRECs) showing a similar trend in 8/9 patients; naïve CD4+ T cells were low only in 5/11 patients (45.4%). Interestingly, B-cell counts, IgM memory B cells, and IgM serum levels were reduced in 10/12 (83.3%) patients. Natural killer (NK) cell counts were mostly normal but the percentages of CD16+CD56low/− cells were expanded in 7/7 patients tested. The observed immunological alterations did not correlate with patients’ age. Finally, responses to proliferative stimuli were normal at presentation for all patients, although they may deteriorate over time. Conclusions: Our data suggest that patients affected with JS may display important numeric and maturational alterations in the T-, B-, and NK-cell compartments. These findings suggest that JS patients should be regularly monitored from an immunological point of view.
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