Inflammation is an essential protective response against harmful stimuli, such as invading pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Physiological inflammation eliminates pathogens and promotes tissue repair and healing. Effective immune response in humans depends on a tightly regulated balance among inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms involving both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Excessive inflammation can become pathological and induce detrimental effects. If this process is not self-limited, an inappropriate remodeling of the tissues and organs can occur and lead to the onset of chronic degenerative diseases. A wide spectrum of infectious and non-infectious agents may activate the inflammation, via the release of mediators and cytokines by distinct subtypes of lymphocytes and macrophages. Several molecular mechanisms regulate the onset, progression, and resolution of inflammation. All these steps, even the termination of this process, are active and not passive events. In particular, a complex interplay exists between mediators (belonging to the group of Eicosanoids), which induce the beginning of inflammation, such as Prostaglandins (PGE2), Leukotrienes (LT), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and molecules which display a key role in counteracting this process and in promoting its proper resolution. The latter group of mediators includes: ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA)-derived metabolites, such as Lipoxins (LXs), ω -3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived mediators, such as E-series Resolvins (RvEs), and ω -3 docosahexaenoic (DHA)-derived mediators, such as D-series Resolvins (RvDs), Protectins (PDs) and Maresins (MaRs). Overall, these mediators are defined as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). Reduced synthesis of these molecules may lead to uncontrolled inflammation with possible harmful effects. ω-3 fatty acids are widely used in clinical practice as rather inexpensive, safe, readily available supplemental therapy. Taking advantage of this evidence, several researchers are suggesting that SPMs may have beneficial effects in the complementary treatment of patients with severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 related infection, to counteract the “cytokine storm” observed in these individuals. Well-designed and sized trials in patients suffering from COVID-19 with different degrees of severity are needed to investigate the real impact in the clinical practice of this promising therapeutic approach.

The function of specialized pro-resolving endogenous lipid mediators, vitamins, and other micronutrients in the control of the inflammatory processes: Possible role in patients with SARS-CoV-2 related infection

Giampieri E.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Corazza I.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Loiacono R.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Loggi E.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
de Biase D.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Lari F.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Zancanaro M.
Membro del Collaboration Group
2022

Abstract

Inflammation is an essential protective response against harmful stimuli, such as invading pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Physiological inflammation eliminates pathogens and promotes tissue repair and healing. Effective immune response in humans depends on a tightly regulated balance among inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms involving both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Excessive inflammation can become pathological and induce detrimental effects. If this process is not self-limited, an inappropriate remodeling of the tissues and organs can occur and lead to the onset of chronic degenerative diseases. A wide spectrum of infectious and non-infectious agents may activate the inflammation, via the release of mediators and cytokines by distinct subtypes of lymphocytes and macrophages. Several molecular mechanisms regulate the onset, progression, and resolution of inflammation. All these steps, even the termination of this process, are active and not passive events. In particular, a complex interplay exists between mediators (belonging to the group of Eicosanoids), which induce the beginning of inflammation, such as Prostaglandins (PGE2), Leukotrienes (LT), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and molecules which display a key role in counteracting this process and in promoting its proper resolution. The latter group of mediators includes: ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA)-derived metabolites, such as Lipoxins (LXs), ω -3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived mediators, such as E-series Resolvins (RvEs), and ω -3 docosahexaenoic (DHA)-derived mediators, such as D-series Resolvins (RvDs), Protectins (PDs) and Maresins (MaRs). Overall, these mediators are defined as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). Reduced synthesis of these molecules may lead to uncontrolled inflammation with possible harmful effects. ω-3 fatty acids are widely used in clinical practice as rather inexpensive, safe, readily available supplemental therapy. Taking advantage of this evidence, several researchers are suggesting that SPMs may have beneficial effects in the complementary treatment of patients with severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 related infection, to counteract the “cytokine storm” observed in these individuals. Well-designed and sized trials in patients suffering from COVID-19 with different degrees of severity are needed to investigate the real impact in the clinical practice of this promising therapeutic approach.
2022
Gallo C.G.; Fiorino S.; Posabella G.; Antonacci D.; Tropeano A.; Pausini E.; Pausini C.; Guarniero T.; Hong W.; Giampieri E.; Corazza I.; Loiacono R.; Loggi E.; de Biase D.; Zippi M.; Lari F.; Zancanaro M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/847549
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