Still today, concerns regarding delamination limit the widespread use of high-performance composite laminates, such as carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs), to replace metals. Nanofibrous mat interleaving is a well-established approach to reduce delamination. However, nanomodifications may strongly affect other laminate thermomechanical properties, especially if achieved by integrating soft materials. Here, this limitation is entirely avoided by using rubbery nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)/Nomex mixed nanofibers: neither laminate stiffness nor glass-transition temperature (Tg) lowering occurs upon CFRP nanomodification. Stable noncrosslinked nanofibers with up to 60% wt of NBR were produced via single-needle electrospinning, which were then morphologically, thermally, spectroscopically, and mechanically characterized. NBR and Nomex disposition in the nanofiber was investigated via selective removal of the sole rubber fraction, revealing the formation of particular self-assembled structures resembling quasi-core-shell nanofibers or fibril-like hierarchical structures, depending on the applied electrospinning conditions (1.10 and 0.20 mL/h, respectively). Mode I and Mode II loading tests show a significant improvement of the interlaminar fracture toughness of rubbery nanofiber-modified CFRPs, especially GI (up to +180%), while GII enhancement is less pronounced but still significant (+40% in the best case). The two nanofibrous morphologies (quasi-core-shell and fibril-like ones) improve the delamination resistance differently, also suggesting that the way the rubber is located in the nanofibers plays a role in the toughening action. The quasi-core-shell nanofiber morphology provides the best reinforcing action, besides the highest productivity. By contrast, pure Nomex nanofibers dramatically worsen the interlaminar fracture toughness (up to -70% in GI), acting as a release film. The achieved delamination resistance improvements, combined with the retention of both the original laminate stiffness and Tg, pave the way to the extensive and reliable application of NBR/Nomex rubbery nanofibrous mats in composite laminates.

Self-Assembled NBR/Nomex Nanofibers as Lightweight Rubbery Nonwovens for Hindering Delamination in Epoxy CFRPs

Maccaferri E.;Mazzocchetti L.;Benelli T.;Brugo T. M.;Zucchelli A.;Giorgini L.
2022

Abstract

Still today, concerns regarding delamination limit the widespread use of high-performance composite laminates, such as carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs), to replace metals. Nanofibrous mat interleaving is a well-established approach to reduce delamination. However, nanomodifications may strongly affect other laminate thermomechanical properties, especially if achieved by integrating soft materials. Here, this limitation is entirely avoided by using rubbery nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)/Nomex mixed nanofibers: neither laminate stiffness nor glass-transition temperature (Tg) lowering occurs upon CFRP nanomodification. Stable noncrosslinked nanofibers with up to 60% wt of NBR were produced via single-needle electrospinning, which were then morphologically, thermally, spectroscopically, and mechanically characterized. NBR and Nomex disposition in the nanofiber was investigated via selective removal of the sole rubber fraction, revealing the formation of particular self-assembled structures resembling quasi-core-shell nanofibers or fibril-like hierarchical structures, depending on the applied electrospinning conditions (1.10 and 0.20 mL/h, respectively). Mode I and Mode II loading tests show a significant improvement of the interlaminar fracture toughness of rubbery nanofiber-modified CFRPs, especially GI (up to +180%), while GII enhancement is less pronounced but still significant (+40% in the best case). The two nanofibrous morphologies (quasi-core-shell and fibril-like ones) improve the delamination resistance differently, also suggesting that the way the rubber is located in the nanofibers plays a role in the toughening action. The quasi-core-shell nanofiber morphology provides the best reinforcing action, besides the highest productivity. By contrast, pure Nomex nanofibers dramatically worsen the interlaminar fracture toughness (up to -70% in GI), acting as a release film. The achieved delamination resistance improvements, combined with the retention of both the original laminate stiffness and Tg, pave the way to the extensive and reliable application of NBR/Nomex rubbery nanofibrous mats in composite laminates.
Maccaferri E.; Mazzocchetti L.; Benelli T.; Brugo T.M.; Zucchelli A.; Giorgini L.
File in questo prodotto:
Eventuali allegati, non sono esposti

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/847007
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact