Objectives: Acute cerebral ischemia is characterized by several pathological processes evolving during time, which contribute to the final tissue damage. Secondary processes, such as prolonged inflammatory response, impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, are responsible for the progression of brain injury to the peri-infarct area, called “penumbra.” Adenosine has been shown to play a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory cascade following brain ischemia. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) act as modulators of adenosine receptors, increasing the functionality of the endogenous adenosine. In particular, PEMF exposure induces a significant upregulation of A2A and A3 adenosine receptors in different neuronal cell types. Several lines of evidence suggest that PEMF exposure might play a neuroprotective role after ischemic damage. Materials and Methods: This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanism of action of PEMFs and their biological effects on neuronal damage both in preclinical and clinical studies. Results: PEMFs counteract hypoxia-induced apoptosis and ROS production in neuronal-like cells and exert a strong anti-inflammatory effect on microglial cells. Data from stroke animal models showed that PEMFs exposure is able to reduce the size of the infarct area and decrease the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. In clinical studies, PEMFs stimulation proved to be safe and well tolerated. Preliminary results on acute ischemic stroke patients showed a dose-dependent reduction in the lesion size. Conclusions: Altogether, these data demonstrate the efficacy of PEMFs against several mechanisms underlying ischemic damage and suggest that PEMFs might represent a novel noninvasive adjunctive treatment for acute ischemic stroke, providing neuroprotection and reducing functional deficits following ischemia.

Capone F., Salati S., Vincenzi F., Liberti M., Aicardi G., Apollonio F., et al. (2022). Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields: A Novel Attractive Therapeutic Opportunity for Neuroprotection After Acute Cerebral Ischemia. NEUROMODULATION, 25(8), 1240-1247 [10.1111/ner.13489].

Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields: A Novel Attractive Therapeutic Opportunity for Neuroprotection After Acute Cerebral Ischemia

Aicardi G.;
2022

Abstract

Objectives: Acute cerebral ischemia is characterized by several pathological processes evolving during time, which contribute to the final tissue damage. Secondary processes, such as prolonged inflammatory response, impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, are responsible for the progression of brain injury to the peri-infarct area, called “penumbra.” Adenosine has been shown to play a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory cascade following brain ischemia. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) act as modulators of adenosine receptors, increasing the functionality of the endogenous adenosine. In particular, PEMF exposure induces a significant upregulation of A2A and A3 adenosine receptors in different neuronal cell types. Several lines of evidence suggest that PEMF exposure might play a neuroprotective role after ischemic damage. Materials and Methods: This review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanism of action of PEMFs and their biological effects on neuronal damage both in preclinical and clinical studies. Results: PEMFs counteract hypoxia-induced apoptosis and ROS production in neuronal-like cells and exert a strong anti-inflammatory effect on microglial cells. Data from stroke animal models showed that PEMFs exposure is able to reduce the size of the infarct area and decrease the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. In clinical studies, PEMFs stimulation proved to be safe and well tolerated. Preliminary results on acute ischemic stroke patients showed a dose-dependent reduction in the lesion size. Conclusions: Altogether, these data demonstrate the efficacy of PEMFs against several mechanisms underlying ischemic damage and suggest that PEMFs might represent a novel noninvasive adjunctive treatment for acute ischemic stroke, providing neuroprotection and reducing functional deficits following ischemia.
2022
Capone F., Salati S., Vincenzi F., Liberti M., Aicardi G., Apollonio F., et al. (2022). Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields: A Novel Attractive Therapeutic Opportunity for Neuroprotection After Acute Cerebral Ischemia. NEUROMODULATION, 25(8), 1240-1247 [10.1111/ner.13489].
Capone F.; Salati S.; Vincenzi F.; Liberti M.; Aicardi G.; Apollonio F.; Varani K.; Cadossi R.; Di Lazzaro V.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
h_11585_833009.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipo: Versione (PDF) editoriale
Licenza: Licenza per Accesso Aperto. Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate (CCBYNCND)
Dimensione 993.49 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
993.49 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/833009
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 6
  • Scopus 8
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 6
social impact