Few molecular prognostic and predictive biomarkers have been identified so far in genitourinary tumors. We started from a literature search to explore the status of the art of molecular pathology tests as diagnostic, prognostic, predictive biomarkers in genitourinary cancers. Next generation sequencing approaches now provide mind-changing information in the fields of kidney cancer diagnosis, predictive oncology of urothelial cancer, understanding the causes of testicular and penile cancer, and the comprehension of the drivers of prostate cancer progression beyond androgen regulation. The classification of kidney cancer will be based soon on molecular changes. The causes of non-HPV related penile cancer are largely unknown. The emerging high incidence of testicular cancer could be explained only on the basis of molecular changes. The response to novel therapeutic agents in prostatic and urothelial cancer will require thorough molecular tumor characterization. The hereditary risk of patients with early onset prostate cancer and their potential treatment with targeted therapy requires germline and somatic genetic assays. The implementation of effective biomarkers for the response to immune check-point inhibitors in genitourinary cancer is based on the assessment of inflammatory expression profiles and the tumor mutational burden. This review deals with the current tests and provides a tentative foresee of the future molecular biomarkers of genitourinary cancer.

A narrative review of individualized treatments of genitourinary tumors: Is the future brighter with molecular evaluations?

Franceschini T.;Fiorentino M.
2021

Abstract

Few molecular prognostic and predictive biomarkers have been identified so far in genitourinary tumors. We started from a literature search to explore the status of the art of molecular pathology tests as diagnostic, prognostic, predictive biomarkers in genitourinary cancers. Next generation sequencing approaches now provide mind-changing information in the fields of kidney cancer diagnosis, predictive oncology of urothelial cancer, understanding the causes of testicular and penile cancer, and the comprehension of the drivers of prostate cancer progression beyond androgen regulation. The classification of kidney cancer will be based soon on molecular changes. The causes of non-HPV related penile cancer are largely unknown. The emerging high incidence of testicular cancer could be explained only on the basis of molecular changes. The response to novel therapeutic agents in prostatic and urothelial cancer will require thorough molecular tumor characterization. The hereditary risk of patients with early onset prostate cancer and their potential treatment with targeted therapy requires germline and somatic genetic assays. The implementation of effective biomarkers for the response to immune check-point inhibitors in genitourinary cancer is based on the assessment of inflammatory expression profiles and the tumor mutational burden. This review deals with the current tests and provides a tentative foresee of the future molecular biomarkers of genitourinary cancer.
2021
Giunchi F.; Franceschini T.; Fiorentino M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/819618
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