The present review aims to summarize the main features of mammary gland anatomy, and the physiology of lactation and colostrum/milk in the most commonly used animal species for regulatory toxicity. The final goal is the selection of a preferred animal species to be enrolled in studies investigating the potential transfer of drugs and exogenous molecules through milk, within the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) funded project ConcePTION. Reference data regarding humans were also collected and analyzed in order to highlight critical similarities and differences with the studied species. Additional practical considerations were also taken into account, such as ethical consideration regarding the chosen species which affects the group size, financial implications and technical feasibility of lactation trials (e.g., ease of sampling, volume of sampling, hus-bandry requirements and scientific recognition). In conclusion, the present analysis of the literature confirms the complexity of the decisional process behind the choice of an animal model for in vivo trials. For some of the evaluated species, data were either poor or missing, highlighting the necessity to generate more physiological background studies for species that are routinely used in laboratory settings. Overall, when taking into consideration ethical factors, feasible group size, milk volume and ease of milk collection, and physiological similarities with humans, minipigs seem to represent the most appropriate choice.

Animal Models for In Vivo Lactation Studies: Anatomy, Physiology and Milk Compositions in the Most Used Non-Clinical Species: A Contribution from the ConcePTION Project

Ventrella, Domenico;Elmi, Alberto;Aniballi, Camilla;Forni, Monica;Bacci, Maria Laura
2021

Abstract

The present review aims to summarize the main features of mammary gland anatomy, and the physiology of lactation and colostrum/milk in the most commonly used animal species for regulatory toxicity. The final goal is the selection of a preferred animal species to be enrolled in studies investigating the potential transfer of drugs and exogenous molecules through milk, within the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) funded project ConcePTION. Reference data regarding humans were also collected and analyzed in order to highlight critical similarities and differences with the studied species. Additional practical considerations were also taken into account, such as ethical consideration regarding the chosen species which affects the group size, financial implications and technical feasibility of lactation trials (e.g., ease of sampling, volume of sampling, hus-bandry requirements and scientific recognition). In conclusion, the present analysis of the literature confirms the complexity of the decisional process behind the choice of an animal model for in vivo trials. For some of the evaluated species, data were either poor or missing, highlighting the necessity to generate more physiological background studies for species that are routinely used in laboratory settings. Overall, when taking into consideration ethical factors, feasible group size, milk volume and ease of milk collection, and physiological similarities with humans, minipigs seem to represent the most appropriate choice.
ANIMALS
Ventrella, Domenico; Ashkenazi, Nurit; Elmi, Alberto; Allegaert, Karel; Aniballi, Camilla; DeLise, Anthony; Devine, Patrick John; Smits, Anne; Steiner, Lilach; Forni, Monica; Bouisset-Leonard, Michele; Bacci, Maria Laura
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/815041
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