Purpose: To correlate objective measures of audio-vestibular function with superior canal dehiscence (SCD) size and location in ears with SCD and compare results with literature. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 242 patients exhibiting SCD and/or extremely thinned bone overlying superior canals (SC) on CT scans and selected 73 SCD patients (95 ears with SCD). Data concerning audiometry, impedance audiometry, video-head impulse test (vHIT), cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) and ocular VEMPs (oVEMPs) to air- (AC) and bone-conducted (BC) stimuli were collected for each pathologic ear and correlated with dehiscence size and location. Results: AC pure-tone average (PTA) (p = 0.013), low-frequency air–bone gap (ABG) (p < 0.001), AC cVEMPs amplitude (p = 0.002), BC cVEMPs amplitude (p < 0.001) and both AC and BC oVEMPs amplitude (p < 0.001) positively correlated with increasing SCD size. An inverse relationship between dehiscence length and both AC cVEMPs and oVEMPs thresholds (p < 0.001) and SC vestibulo–ocular reflex (VOR) gain (p < 0.001) was observed. Dehiscences at the arcuate eminence (AE) exhibited lower SC VOR gains compared to SCD along the ampullary arm (p = 0.008) and less impaired BC thresholds than dehiscences at the superior petrosal sinus (p = 0.04). Conclusion: We confirmed that SCD size affects AC PTA, ABG and both amplitudes and thresholds of cVEMPs and oVEMPs. We also described a tendency for SC function to impair with increasing SCD size and when dehiscence is located at the AE. The latter data may be explained either by a spontaneous canal plugging exerted by middle fossa dura or by a dissipation through the dehiscence of mechanical energy conveyed to the endolymph during high-frequency impulses.
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