BACKGROUND: Juxta-renal (JAAA)/para-renal (PAAA) and type IV-thoracoabdominal (TAAA) aneurysms can be repaired by custom-made fenestrated endografts (CM-FEVAR). Differently from open repair, a relatively long segment of healthy proximal aorta needs to be covered to achieve a durable sealing, and this may be considered a disadvantage of the endovascular approach. We aimed to quantify the additional proximal aortic coverage in JAAAs, PAAAs, and type-IV TAAAs treated with CM-FEVAR and to evaluate its impact on early/follow-up clinical outcomes.METHODS: Between 2006 and 2018, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data of JAAAs, PAAAs, and type-IV TAAAs submitted to CM-FEVAR were collected. The length of proximal healthy aortic coverage was evaluated on the preoperative endograft planning as the distance between the top of the CM-FEVAR endograft and the hypothetical level of aortic cross-clamping in case of open repair (type-IV TAAA-above the celiac trunk; PAAA-above the superior mesenteric artery; JAAA-above the lowest renal artery). Spinal cord ischemia (SCI), bowel ischemia (BI), renal function worsening (RFW) (estimated glomerular filtration rate reduction>25% of the baseline level - RFW), and mortality were assessed at 30-day. Survival, target visceral vessel (TVV) patency, and freedom from reinterventions (FFRs) were assessed during follow-up by Kaplan-Meier analysis R2.RESULTS: One hundred forty-seven cases were submitted to CM-FEVAR, for 72 (49%) JAAAs, 46 (31%) PAAAs, and 29 (20%) type IV-TAAAs, with 1(4-3%), 2 (28-19%), 3 (48-33%), and 4 (67-45%) fenestrations. JAAAs required a fenestration+bridging stent graft for the superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk, in 46(64%) and 24(33%) cases, respectively. Nineteen (41%) PAAAs required a fenestration+bridging stent graft for the celiac trunk. The mean proximal additional aortic coverage was 48 ± 2mm with no differences among JAAAs (52 ± 1mm), PAAAs (42 ± 2mm), and type IV-TAAAs (50 ± 2mm) (P.09). Technical success, defined as correct endograft deployment, with TVV patency, absence of type I-III endoleaks, iliac leg stenosis/occlusions, open surgical conversion, and 24-hour mortality, was achieved in 98% of cases. Failures occurred for 1 type-III endoleak (type-IV TAAA) and 2 renal artery losses (PAAA and type IV-TAAA). The only case of SCI (0.7%) occurred in a type-IV TAAA where the proximal healthy aortic coverage was 80mm. One BI was caused by acute thrombosis of the bridging stent graft for the superior mesenteric artery at 24hours in 1 type IV-TAAA (0.7%). Thirty-five patients (24%) suffered postoperative RFW and required hemodialysis in 1 (0.7%) JAAA with severe preoperative chronic renal failure. There was no difference of proximal additional aortic coverage between patients with (49±29mm) and without (48±23mm) RFW (P.2). The 30-day mortality was 1.4%. The mean follow-up was 37 ± 2months with no cases of aneurysm-related late mortality. Survival was 94%, 89%, and 75% at 1, 2, and 5years, respectively. TVV patency was 97%, 97%, and 93% at 1, 2, and 5years, respectively. FFR was 98%, 95%, and 87% at 1, 2, and 5years, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Custom-made FEVAR requires a mean proximal additional aortic coverage of 48 ± 2mm above the level of hypothetical aortic cross-clamping in case of open repair. This aspect should be considered for CM-FEVAR indication in JAAAs, PAAAs, and type-IV TAAAs; nevertheless, it does not appear to be associated with negative early and follow-up clinical sequelae.

Proximal Aortic Coverage and Clinical Results of the Endovascular Repair of Juxta-/Para-renal and Type IV Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm with Custom-made Fenestrated Endografts

Gallitto, Enrico;Faggioli, Gianluca;Pini, Rodolfo;Logiacco, Antonino;Mascoli, Chiara;Fenelli, Cecilia;Abualhin, Mohammad;Gargiulo, Mauro
2021

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Juxta-renal (JAAA)/para-renal (PAAA) and type IV-thoracoabdominal (TAAA) aneurysms can be repaired by custom-made fenestrated endografts (CM-FEVAR). Differently from open repair, a relatively long segment of healthy proximal aorta needs to be covered to achieve a durable sealing, and this may be considered a disadvantage of the endovascular approach. We aimed to quantify the additional proximal aortic coverage in JAAAs, PAAAs, and type-IV TAAAs treated with CM-FEVAR and to evaluate its impact on early/follow-up clinical outcomes.METHODS: Between 2006 and 2018, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data of JAAAs, PAAAs, and type-IV TAAAs submitted to CM-FEVAR were collected. The length of proximal healthy aortic coverage was evaluated on the preoperative endograft planning as the distance between the top of the CM-FEVAR endograft and the hypothetical level of aortic cross-clamping in case of open repair (type-IV TAAA-above the celiac trunk; PAAA-above the superior mesenteric artery; JAAA-above the lowest renal artery). Spinal cord ischemia (SCI), bowel ischemia (BI), renal function worsening (RFW) (estimated glomerular filtration rate reduction>25% of the baseline level - RFW), and mortality were assessed at 30-day. Survival, target visceral vessel (TVV) patency, and freedom from reinterventions (FFRs) were assessed during follow-up by Kaplan-Meier analysis R2.RESULTS: One hundred forty-seven cases were submitted to CM-FEVAR, for 72 (49%) JAAAs, 46 (31%) PAAAs, and 29 (20%) type IV-TAAAs, with 1(4-3%), 2 (28-19%), 3 (48-33%), and 4 (67-45%) fenestrations. JAAAs required a fenestration+bridging stent graft for the superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk, in 46(64%) and 24(33%) cases, respectively. Nineteen (41%) PAAAs required a fenestration+bridging stent graft for the celiac trunk. The mean proximal additional aortic coverage was 48 ± 2mm with no differences among JAAAs (52 ± 1mm), PAAAs (42 ± 2mm), and type IV-TAAAs (50 ± 2mm) (P.09). Technical success, defined as correct endograft deployment, with TVV patency, absence of type I-III endoleaks, iliac leg stenosis/occlusions, open surgical conversion, and 24-hour mortality, was achieved in 98% of cases. Failures occurred for 1 type-III endoleak (type-IV TAAA) and 2 renal artery losses (PAAA and type IV-TAAA). The only case of SCI (0.7%) occurred in a type-IV TAAA where the proximal healthy aortic coverage was 80mm. One BI was caused by acute thrombosis of the bridging stent graft for the superior mesenteric artery at 24hours in 1 type IV-TAAA (0.7%). Thirty-five patients (24%) suffered postoperative RFW and required hemodialysis in 1 (0.7%) JAAA with severe preoperative chronic renal failure. There was no difference of proximal additional aortic coverage between patients with (49±29mm) and without (48±23mm) RFW (P.2). The 30-day mortality was 1.4%. The mean follow-up was 37 ± 2months with no cases of aneurysm-related late mortality. Survival was 94%, 89%, and 75% at 1, 2, and 5years, respectively. TVV patency was 97%, 97%, and 93% at 1, 2, and 5years, respectively. FFR was 98%, 95%, and 87% at 1, 2, and 5years, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Custom-made FEVAR requires a mean proximal additional aortic coverage of 48 ± 2mm above the level of hypothetical aortic cross-clamping in case of open repair. This aspect should be considered for CM-FEVAR indication in JAAAs, PAAAs, and type-IV TAAAs; nevertheless, it does not appear to be associated with negative early and follow-up clinical sequelae.
Gallitto, Enrico; Faggioli, Gianluca; Pini, Rodolfo; Logiacco, Antonino; Mascoli, Chiara; Fenelli, Cecilia; Abualhin, Mohammad; Gargiulo, Mauro
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/800508
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