A frustrating inertia has affected the development of clinical applications of antidepressant pharmacogenetics and personalized treatments of depression are still lacking 20 years after the first findings. Candidate gene studies provided replicated findings for some polymorphisms, but each of them shows at best a small effect on antidepressant efficacy and the cumulative effect of different polymorphisms is unclear. Further, no candidate was immune by at least some negative studies. These considerations give rise to some concerns about the clinical benefits of currently available pharmacogenetic tests since they are based on the results of candidate gene studies. Clinical guidelines in fact suggest that only polymorphisms that alter cytochrome 2D6 or 2C19 enzymatic activity probably provide useful clinical indications, while variants in genes involved in antidepressant pharmacodynamics have no recommended clinical applications. The present review discusses possible strategies to facilitate the identification of genetic biomarkers with clinical usefulness in guiding antidepressant treatments. These include analysis methods for the study of the polygenic/omnigenic nature of antidepressant response, the prioritization of polymorphisms on the basis of functional considerations, the incorporation of clinical-demographic predictors in pharmacogenetic studies (e.g. mixed polygenic and clinical risk scores), the application of methodological improvements to the design of future studies in order to maximize the comparability of results and improve power.

Clinical application of antidepressant pharmacogenetics: Considerations for the design of future studies

Fabbri C.
Primo
;
Serretti A.
Ultimo
2020

Abstract

A frustrating inertia has affected the development of clinical applications of antidepressant pharmacogenetics and personalized treatments of depression are still lacking 20 years after the first findings. Candidate gene studies provided replicated findings for some polymorphisms, but each of them shows at best a small effect on antidepressant efficacy and the cumulative effect of different polymorphisms is unclear. Further, no candidate was immune by at least some negative studies. These considerations give rise to some concerns about the clinical benefits of currently available pharmacogenetic tests since they are based on the results of candidate gene studies. Clinical guidelines in fact suggest that only polymorphisms that alter cytochrome 2D6 or 2C19 enzymatic activity probably provide useful clinical indications, while variants in genes involved in antidepressant pharmacodynamics have no recommended clinical applications. The present review discusses possible strategies to facilitate the identification of genetic biomarkers with clinical usefulness in guiding antidepressant treatments. These include analysis methods for the study of the polygenic/omnigenic nature of antidepressant response, the prioritization of polymorphisms on the basis of functional considerations, the incorporation of clinical-demographic predictors in pharmacogenetic studies (e.g. mixed polygenic and clinical risk scores), the application of methodological improvements to the design of future studies in order to maximize the comparability of results and improve power.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/793185
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