The continued drug discovery failures in complex neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), has raised questions about the classical paradigm “one-drug, one-target, one-disease.” In parallel, the ever-increasing awareness of the multiplicity of the underlying pathways has led to the affirmation of polypharmacological approaches. Polypharmacology, which broadly embodies the use of pharmaceutical agents acting on multiple targets, seems to be the best way to restore the complex diseased network and to provide disease-modifying effects in AD. In this review, our aim is to provide a roadmap into a world that is still only partly explored and that should be seen as a continuum of pharmacological opportunities, from drug combinations to multitarget-directed ligands (both codrugs and hybrids). Each modality has unique features that can be effectively exploited by medicinal chemists. We argue that understanding their advantages and drawbacks is very helpful in choosing a proper approach and developing successful AD multitarget drug-discovery endeavors. We also briefly dwell on (co)target validation, an aspect that is quite often neglected, but critical for an efficient clinical translation. We substantiate our discussion with instructive examples taken from the recent literature. Our wish is that, in spite of the specter of the high attrition rates, best researchers preferring to enter, stay, and progress in the field would help grow the sector and develop AD polypharmacology to full potential.

From combinations to multitarget-directed ligands: A continuum in Alzheimer's disease polypharmacology

Albertini C.;Salerno A.;Bolognesi M. L.
2021

Abstract

The continued drug discovery failures in complex neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), has raised questions about the classical paradigm “one-drug, one-target, one-disease.” In parallel, the ever-increasing awareness of the multiplicity of the underlying pathways has led to the affirmation of polypharmacological approaches. Polypharmacology, which broadly embodies the use of pharmaceutical agents acting on multiple targets, seems to be the best way to restore the complex diseased network and to provide disease-modifying effects in AD. In this review, our aim is to provide a roadmap into a world that is still only partly explored and that should be seen as a continuum of pharmacological opportunities, from drug combinations to multitarget-directed ligands (both codrugs and hybrids). Each modality has unique features that can be effectively exploited by medicinal chemists. We argue that understanding their advantages and drawbacks is very helpful in choosing a proper approach and developing successful AD multitarget drug-discovery endeavors. We also briefly dwell on (co)target validation, an aspect that is quite often neglected, but critical for an efficient clinical translation. We substantiate our discussion with instructive examples taken from the recent literature. Our wish is that, in spite of the specter of the high attrition rates, best researchers preferring to enter, stay, and progress in the field would help grow the sector and develop AD polypharmacology to full potential.
2021
Albertini C.; Salerno A.; de Sena Murteira Pinheiro P.; Bolognesi M.L.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/788359
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