Background: The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) is a major ectoparasite of poultry. Infestations are found in most laying hen farms in Europe, and breeder flocks have also been reported to be affected. Mite infestation has detrimental effects on animal welfare, it causes significant economic losses, and, additionally, D. gallinae is often considered as a vector for pathogens. Despite suspicion of a close relationship between the poultry red mite and Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (serovar Gallinarum), the causative agent of fowl typhoid disease (FT), there has been no definitive proof of mite-mediated transmission. Therefore, an investigation was conducted to determine if D. gallinae-mediated transmission of serovar Gallinarum could be demonstrated among four different hen groups. Methods: Two groups of 8 hens (A and B) were experimentally infected with serovar Gallinarum in two isolators. After 7 days, when birds showed signs of FT, about 25,000 mites were introduced. After 3 days, mites were harvested and used to infest two other hen groups of 8 (C and D), in two separate isolators. The health status of hens was constantly monitored; detection and quantification of serovar Gallinarum were performed by PCR and qPCR from mites and organs of dead hens. The maximum likelihood estimation of the infection rate and mite vectorial capacity were calculated. Results: Clinical disease was observed in groups infected with serovar Gallinarum (A and B) and in hens of groups C and D infested with mites harvested from the isolators containing groups A and B. In all four groups, serovar Gallinarum was detected from liver, spleen, ovary, and cecum of hens, thus confirming the diagnosis of FT. Mite analysis demonstrated the presence of the pathogen, with an estimated infection rate ranging between 13.72 and 55.21 infected per thousand mites. Vectorial capacity was estimated to be 73.79. Conclusions: Mites harvested from birds infected with serovar Gallinarum were shown to carry the mite, and then to transfer serovar Gallinarum to isolated groups of pathogen-free birds that subsequently showed signs of FT. Mite vectorial capacity was high, demonstrating that D. gallinae should be considered an effective vector of FT.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Evidence of vector borne transmission of Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Gallinarum and fowl typhoid disease mediated by the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778)

Lupini C.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Mescolini G.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Catelli E.
Supervision
;
2020

Abstract

Background: The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) is a major ectoparasite of poultry. Infestations are found in most laying hen farms in Europe, and breeder flocks have also been reported to be affected. Mite infestation has detrimental effects on animal welfare, it causes significant economic losses, and, additionally, D. gallinae is often considered as a vector for pathogens. Despite suspicion of a close relationship between the poultry red mite and Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (serovar Gallinarum), the causative agent of fowl typhoid disease (FT), there has been no definitive proof of mite-mediated transmission. Therefore, an investigation was conducted to determine if D. gallinae-mediated transmission of serovar Gallinarum could be demonstrated among four different hen groups. Methods: Two groups of 8 hens (A and B) were experimentally infected with serovar Gallinarum in two isolators. After 7 days, when birds showed signs of FT, about 25,000 mites were introduced. After 3 days, mites were harvested and used to infest two other hen groups of 8 (C and D), in two separate isolators. The health status of hens was constantly monitored; detection and quantification of serovar Gallinarum were performed by PCR and qPCR from mites and organs of dead hens. The maximum likelihood estimation of the infection rate and mite vectorial capacity were calculated. Results: Clinical disease was observed in groups infected with serovar Gallinarum (A and B) and in hens of groups C and D infested with mites harvested from the isolators containing groups A and B. In all four groups, serovar Gallinarum was detected from liver, spleen, ovary, and cecum of hens, thus confirming the diagnosis of FT. Mite analysis demonstrated the presence of the pathogen, with an estimated infection rate ranging between 13.72 and 55.21 infected per thousand mites. Vectorial capacity was estimated to be 73.79. Conclusions: Mites harvested from birds infected with serovar Gallinarum were shown to carry the mite, and then to transfer serovar Gallinarum to isolated groups of pathogen-free birds that subsequently showed signs of FT. Mite vectorial capacity was high, demonstrating that D. gallinae should be considered an effective vector of FT.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]
Cocciolo G.; Circella E.; Pugliese N.; Lupini C.; Mescolini G.; Catelli E.; Borchert-Stuhltrager M.; Zoller H.; Thomas E.; Camarda A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/783281
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