Background and aims: Phenylketonuria (PKU)-affected women may become pregnant, and dietary phenylalanine (Phe) intake must be adjusted according to Phe tolerance. We report our experience with maternal PKU in relation to genotype PKU heterogeneity. Methods and Results: A total of 10 pregnancies in 7 PKU women (7 different genotypes) were followed up as part of personalized care. Phe tolerance during preconception and pregnancy was assessed by strict dietary control and weekly Phe measurement (blood spots) in relation to genotype. Most women had stopped PKU diet during childhood or adolescence and six pregnancies were unplanned; a phenylalanine-restricted diet was reinstituted soon after conception. Women were classified according to their Phe levels at birth screening and genotype. Phe tolerance increased systematically in the course of pregnancy in all cases, but the increase was different in subjects with classic PKU (cPKU) when compared with cases with mild hyperphenylalaninemia (mHPA), both on average (+297 mg/day in cPKU vs. 597 in mHPA; P = 0.017) and as percentage (+107% in cPKU vs. +17% in mHPA). Notably, Phe tolerance also varied in the same women in the course of different pregnancies, when body weight gain was also different. Two newborns from the same cPKU mother (unplanned pregnancies on free diet) were affected by congenital alterations. Conclusions: Several factors influence metabolic phenotype in maternal PKU, to an unpredictable extent even in the same woman. The number of maternal PKU cases is growing in dedicated Nutrition Units, and the burden associated with careful management of this condition for the health care system should be adequately considered.

Maternal PKU: Defining phenylalanine tolerance and its variation during pregnancy, according to genetic background

Caletti M. T.;Bettocchi I.;Baronio F.;Brodosi L.;Cataldi S.;Petroni M. L.;Cassio A.;Marchesini G.
2020

Abstract

Background and aims: Phenylketonuria (PKU)-affected women may become pregnant, and dietary phenylalanine (Phe) intake must be adjusted according to Phe tolerance. We report our experience with maternal PKU in relation to genotype PKU heterogeneity. Methods and Results: A total of 10 pregnancies in 7 PKU women (7 different genotypes) were followed up as part of personalized care. Phe tolerance during preconception and pregnancy was assessed by strict dietary control and weekly Phe measurement (blood spots) in relation to genotype. Most women had stopped PKU diet during childhood or adolescence and six pregnancies were unplanned; a phenylalanine-restricted diet was reinstituted soon after conception. Women were classified according to their Phe levels at birth screening and genotype. Phe tolerance increased systematically in the course of pregnancy in all cases, but the increase was different in subjects with classic PKU (cPKU) when compared with cases with mild hyperphenylalaninemia (mHPA), both on average (+297 mg/day in cPKU vs. 597 in mHPA; P = 0.017) and as percentage (+107% in cPKU vs. +17% in mHPA). Notably, Phe tolerance also varied in the same women in the course of different pregnancies, when body weight gain was also different. Two newborns from the same cPKU mother (unplanned pregnancies on free diet) were affected by congenital alterations. Conclusions: Several factors influence metabolic phenotype in maternal PKU, to an unpredictable extent even in the same woman. The number of maternal PKU cases is growing in dedicated Nutrition Units, and the burden associated with careful management of this condition for the health care system should be adequately considered.
Caletti M.T.; Bettocchi I.; Baronio F.; Brodosi L.; Cataldi S.; Petroni M.L.; Cassio A.; Marchesini G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/782751
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